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lis ; bat some of them, rallying under Vocula, retook Magontiacum.
At the beginning of the new year (a. d. 70), the war assumed a fresh and more formidable character. The news of the death of Vitellius exasperated the Roman soldiers, encouraged the insurgents, and shook the fidelity of the Gauls; while a rumour was moreover circulated that the winter quarters of the Moesian and Pannonian legions were besieged by the Dacians and Sarmatians; and above all the burning of the Capitol was esteemed an omen of the approaching end of the Roman empire. Civilis, whose last remnant of dissimulation was necessarily torn away by the death of Vitellius, gave his undivided energies to the war, and was joined by Classicus and Julius Tutor, who at length gained over the army of Vocula. [classicus; tutor; sabinus.] The besieged legions at Vetera Castra could now hold out no longer; they capitulated to Civilis, and took the oath to the empire of the Gauls (in verba Galliarum\ but as they marched away, they were all put to death by the Germans, probably not without the connivance of Civilis. That chieftain, having at length performed his vow of enmity to the Romans, now cut off his hair which., according to the custom of the Germans, he had suffered to grow since the beginning of his enterprise. (Tac. Germ. 31.) Neither Civilis nor any others of the Batavians took the oath in verba Galliarum^ which was the watchword of Classicus and Tutor, for they trusted that, after having disposed of the Romans, they should be able to overpower their Gallic allies. Civilis and Classicus now destroyed all the Roman winter camps, except those at Magontiacum and Vindonissa. The Germans demanded the destruction of Colonia Agrip-pinensis, but it was at length spared, chiefly through the gratitude of Civilis, whose son had been kept in safety there since the beginning of the war. Civilis now gained over several neighbouring states. He was opposed by his old enemy claudius labeo, at the head of an irregular force of Betasii, Tungri, and Nervii; and, by a daring act of courage, he not only decided the victory, but gained the alliance of the Tungri and the other tribes. The attempt, however, to unite all Gaul in the revolt completely failed, the Treviri and the Lingones being the only people who joined the insurgents. [sabinus.]
The reports of these events which were carried to Rome had at length roused Mucianus, who now sent an immense army to the Rhine, under Petilius Cerealis and Annius Gallus [cerealis; gallus.] The insurgents were divided among themselves, Civilis was busy among the Belgae, trying to crush Claudius Labeo; Classicus was quietly enjoying his new empire; while Tutor neglected the important duty, which had been assigned to him, of guarding the Upper Rhine and the passes of the Alps. Cerealis had therefore little difficulty in overcoming the Treviri and regaining their capital. [tutor ; valentinus.] While he was stationed there he received a letter from Civilis and Classicus, informing him that Vespasian was dead, and offering him the empire of the Gauls. Civilis now wished to wait for succours from beyond the Rhine, but the opinion of Tutor and Classicus prevailed, and a battle was fought on the Mosella in which the Romans, though at first almost beaten, gained a complete victory, and destro}Ted the enemy's camp. Colonia Agrippinensis now came over to the Romans; but Civilis and Classicus still made a
brave stand. The Canninefates destroyed the greater part of a Roman fleet, and defeated a body of the Nervii, who, after submitting to Fabius Priscus, the Roman legate, had of their own accord attacked their former allies. Having renewed his army from Germany, Civilis encamped at Vetera Castra, whither Cerealis also marched with increased forces, both leaders being eager for a decisive battle. It was soon fought, and Cerealis gained the victory by the treachery of a Batavian; but, as the Ro mans had no fleet, the Germans escaped across the Rhine. Here Civilis was joined by reinforcements from the Chauci; and, after making, with Verax, Classicus, and Tutor, one more effort which was partially successful, to hold his ground in the island of the Batavi, he was again defeated by Cerealis,, and driven back across the Rhine. Emissaries were sent by Cerealis to make private offers of peace to the Batavians, and of pardon to Civilis, who found that he had no alternative but to sur render. He obtained an interview with Cerealis on a bridge of the river Vahalis. The History of Tacitus breaks off suddenly just after the com mencement of his speech. (Tac. Hist. iv. 12-37, 54-79, v. 14-26. Joseph. Bell. Jud. vii. 4. § 2; Dion Cass. Ixvi. 3.) [P. S.]
CLAN IS, the name of two mythical beings. (Ov. Met. v. 140, xii. 379.) [L. S.]
CLARA, DI'DIA, daughter of the emperor Didius Julianus and his wife Manlia Scantilla. She was married to Cornelius Repentinus, who was appointed praefectus urbi in the room of Flavius Sulpicianus; she received the title of Augusta upon her father's accession, and was deprived of it at his death. Her effigy appears upon coins, but these are of great rarity. (Spartian. Julian. 3, 8; Eckhel, vol. vii. p. 151.) [W. R.]
CLARIUS (KAcfyios), a surname of Apollo, derived from his celebrated temple at Claros in Asia Minor, which had been founded by Manto, the daughter of Teiresias, who, after the conquest of her native city of Thebes, was made over to the Delphic god, and was then sent into the country, where subsequently Colophon was built by the lonians. (Pans. vii. 3. § 1, ix. 33. § 1 ; Tacit. Ann. ii. 54; Strab. xiv. p. 642; Virg. Aen. iii. 360 ; comp. M'uller, Dor. ii. 2. § 7.) Clarius also occurs as a surname of Zeus, describing him as the god who distributes things by lot (i<\dpos or /cA-^- pos, Aeschyl. Suppl. 360). A hill near Tegea was sacred to Zeus under this name. (Paus. viii. 53. § 4.) [L. S.]
CLARUS, a cognomen of a noble Roman family in the second century of the Christian aera.
1. C. septicius clarus, a brother of No. 2, and an uncle of No. 3, was an intimate friend of the younger Pliny, who dedicated to him his Epistles, and speaks of him as one " quo nihil verms, nihil simplicius, nihil candidius, nihil fide-lius novit." (Ep. ii. 9.) Several of Pliny's Epistles are addressed to him (i. 1, 15, vii. 28, viii. 1). Clarus was appointed Praefectus Praetorio by Hadrian, but removed from this office soon afterwards,