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On this page: Cispius – Cisseus – Citerius Sidonius – Cithaeron

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CITHAERON.

Muller, where the name is also written Cespeus and Cispius.}

No persons of this name, however, occur till the very end of the republic. The only cognomen of the gens is laevus : for those whose surname is not mentioned, see cispius.

CISPIUS. 1. M. cispius, tribune of the plebs, b. c. 57, the year in which Cicero was re­called from banishment, took an active part in Ci­cero's favour. The father and brother of Cispius also exerted themselves to obtain Cicero's recall, although he had had in former times a law-suit with the family. On one occasion the life of Cis­pius was in danger through his support of Cicero; he was attacked by the mob of Clodius, and driven out of the forum. In return for these services Cicero defended Cispius when he was accused of bribery (ambitus], but was unable to obtain a ver­dict in his favour. (Cic. pro. Plane. 31, post red. in Sen. 8, pro Sext. 35.)

2. L. cispius, one of Caesar's officers in the African war, commanded part of the fleet. (Hirt. B. Afr. 62, 67.) He is perhaps the same as the Cispius Laevus, whom Plancus mentions in a letter to Cicero in b. c. 43. (Cic. ad Fain. x. 21.)

3. cispius, a debtor of Cicero's. (Cic. ad Att. xii. 24, xiii. 33.) Whether he is the same as either of the preceding, is uncertain.

CISSEUS (Kio-deus), a king in Thrace, and father of Theano or, according to others, of Hecabe. (Horn. 11. vi. 295, xi. 223 ; Eurip. Hec. 3 ; Hygin. Fab. 91; Virg. Aen. vii. 720; Serv. adAen. v. 535.) There are two other mythical beings of the name of Cisseus. (Apolled, ii. 1. § 5 ; Virg. Aen. x. 317.) [L.S.]

CrSSIDAS (KicrffiSas), a Syracusan, command­ed the bodv of auxiliaries which Dionvsius I. sent,

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for the second time, to the aid of Sparta. (b. c. 367.) He assisted Archidamus in his successful attack on Caryae, and in his expedition against Arcadia in the same year. But during the cam­ paign in Arcadia he left him, as the period fixed for his stay by Dionysius had now expired. On his march towards Laconia he was intercepted by a body of Messenians, and was obliged to send to Archidamus for assistance. The prince having joined him with his forces, they changed their route, but were again intercepted by the combined troops of the Arcadians and Argives. The result was, the defeat of the latter in that which has been called the " Tearless Battle."" (Xen. Hell. vii. 1. §§ 28-32; see p. 267, b.) IE. E.]

CITERIUS SIDONIUS, the author of an epigram on three shepherds, which has no poetical merits, and is only remarkable for its quaintness. It is printed in Wernsdorff's Pottae Latini Mi-nores (vol. ii. p. 215), and in the Antliologia Latina (ii. Ep. 257, ed. Burmann, Ep. 253, ed. Meyer). Its author appears to be the same as the Ci­terius, one of the professors at Bourdeaux, and the friend of Ausonius, commemorated in a poem of the latter. (Prof. Burdig. xiii.) We learn from Ausonius that Citerius was born at Syracuse, in Sicily, and was a grammarian and a poet. In his hyperbolical panegyric, Ausonius compares him to Aristarchus and Zenodotus, and says that his poems, written at an early age, were superior to those of Simonides. Citerius afterwards settled at Bourdeaux, married a rich and noble wife, but died without leaving any children.

CITHAERON (KiOaipdv), a mythical king in

CIVIL1S.

Boeotia, from whom mount Cithaeron was believed to have derived its name. Once when Hera was angry with Zeus, Cithaeron advised the latter to take into his chariot a wooden statue and dress it up so as to make it resemble Plataea, the daughter of Asnpus. Zeus followed his counsel, and as he was riding along with his pretended bride, Hera, overcome by her jealousy, ran up to him, tore the covering from the suspected bride, and on discover­ing that it was a statue, became reconciled to Zeus. (Pans. ix. 1, §2, 3. § 1.) Respecting the festival of the Daedala, celebrated to com­memorate this event, see Did. of Ant. s.v. [L. S.] CI'VICA CEREA'LIS. [cerbalis.] CIVI'LIS, CLAU'DIUS, was the leader of the Batavi in their revolt from Rome, a. d. 69-70. The Batavi were a people of Germanic origin, who had left the nation of the Catti, of which they were a part, and had settled in and about the island which is formed by the mouths of the Rhenus (Rhine) and Mesa (Maas). The important posi­tion which they occupied led the Romans to culti­vate their friendship, and they rendered good ser­vice to Rome in the wars in Germany and Britain, under the early emperors. When Rome gave up the idea of subduing Germany, the nations west of the Rhine, especially those of Germanic origin, be­gan to feel a hope of setting themselves free. The civil wars afforded an opportunity for the attempt, and the oppressions of the imperial legates furnish­ed the provocation. It was out of such an act of oppression that the rebellion of Civilis sprung.*

Julius Paul us and Claudius Civilis were brothers^ of the Batavian royal race, and excelled all their nation in personal accomplishments. On a false charge of treason, Nero's legate, Fonteius Capito, put Julias Paulus to death, a. d. 67 or 68, and sent Civilis in chains to Nero at Rome, where he was heard and acquitted by Galba. Pie was afterwards prefect of a cohort, but under Vitellius he became an object of suspicion to the army, who demanded his punishment. (Compare Tac. Hist. i. 59.) Pie escaped the danger, but he did not forget the af­front. He thought of Hannibal and Sertorius, like whom he had lost an eye ; and, being endowed, says Tacitus, with greater mental power than is common among barbarians, he began the execution of his schemes of enmity to Rome under the pretence of supporting the cause of Vespasian. In order to understand the events which occurred at this period in the Germanies and Gaul, it must be remembered that the legions of Germany were Vitellius's own troops, who had called him to the purple, and who remained steadfast to his cause to the very last. The legates, on the other hand, early chose the side of Vespasian, and it was not without reason that they were accused by their soldiers of treasonable

* In the following narrative it is necessary to bear in mind the distinction between Germany, pro­perly so called, and the two Gallic provinces on the left bank of the Rhine, which, from their popula­tion being chiefly of Germanic origin, were called the Germanies (Germania Inferior, and Germania Superior). The scene of the war with Civilis was on the left bank of the Rhine, and chiefly in Ger­mania Inferior.

t Tacitus (Hist. i. 59) also calls Civilis Julius, and so do other writers. (Plut. Erot. 25, p. 770 : where, however, Julius Tutor is possibly meant, Frontin. Strat. iv. 3. § 14.)

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