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746

CICERO.

Victor, Boethius, Favonius Eulogius, Asconius Pedianus, Scholia Bobiensia, Scholiasta Gronovi-anus.

6. Q. tullius cicero, son of No. 2, was born about b.c. 102, and was educated along with his elder brother, the orator, whom he accompanied to Athens in b. c. 79. (De Fin. v. 1.) In b. c. 67 he was elected aedile, and held the office of praetor in b. c. 62. After his period of service in the city had expired, he succeeded L. Flaccus as governor of Asia, where he remained for upwards of three years, and during his administration gave great offence to many, both of the Greeks and of his own countrymen, by his violent temper, unguarded language, and the corruption of his favourite freed-man, Statius. The murmurs arising from these excesses called forth from Marcus that celebrated letter (ad Q. Fr. i. 2), in which, after warning him of his faults and of the unfavourable impression which they had produced, he proceeds to detail the qualifications, duties, and conduct of a perfect provincial ruler. Quintus returned home in b. c. 58, soon after his "brother had gone into exile, and on his approach to Rome was met by a large body of the citizens (pro Sext. 31), who had flocked to­gether to do him honour. He exerted himself strenuously in promoting all the schemes devised for procuring the recall of the exile, in consequence of which he was threatened with a criminal prose­cution by App. Claudius, son of C. Clodius (ad Att. iii. 17), and on one occasion nearly fell a victim to the violence of one of the mercenary mobs led on by the demagogues. (Pro Sext. 35.) In b. c. 55 he was appointed legatus to Caesar, whom he at­tended on the expedition to Britain, and on their return was despatched with a legion to winter among the Nervii. (b. c. 54.) Here, immediately after the disasters of Titurius Sabinus and Aurun-culeius Gotta, his camp was suddenly attacked by a vast multitude of the Eburones and other tribes which had been roused to insurrection by Ambi-orix. The assault was closely pressed for several •days in succession, but so energetic were the mea­sures adopted by Cicero, although at that very time suffering from great bodily weakness, and so bravely was he supported by his soldiers, that they were enabled to hold out until relieved by Caesar, who was loud in his commendations of the troops and their commander. (Caes. B. G. v. 24, &c.)

Quintus was one of the legati of the orator in Cilicia, b. c. 51, took the chief command of the mili­tary operations against the mountaineers of the Syrian frontier, and upon the breaking out of the civil war, insisted upon sharing his fortunes and .following him to the camp of Pompey. {Ad Ait. ix. 1, 6.) Up to this time the most perfect confi­dence and the warmest affection subsisted.between the brothers; but after the battle of Pharsalia (b. c. 48) the younger, giving way to the bitter­ness of a hasty temper exasperated by disappoint­ment, and stimulated by the representations of his son, indulged in the most violent language towards M. Cicero, wrote letters to the most distinguished persons in Italy loading him with abuse, and, pro­ceeding to Alexandria, made his peace with Caesar. (b. c. 47.) (Ad Att. xi. 5, 9, 13, 14—16, 20.) A reconciliation took place after his return to Italy; :but we hear little more of him until the year b. c. 43, when he fell a victim to the proscription of the triumvirs.

Quintus, in addition to his military reputation,

CICERO.

was an aspirant to literary fame also, and in poetry Cicero considered him superior to himself. (Ad Q, Fr. iii. 4.) The fact of his having composed four tragedies in sixteen days, even although they may have been mere translations, does not impress us with a high idea of the probable quality of his pro­ductions (ad Q. Fr. iii. 5) ; but we possess no spe­cimens of his powers in this department, with the exception of twenty-four hexameters on the twelve signs, and an epigram of four lines on the love of women, not very complimentary to the sex. (An~ tholog. Lat. v. 41, iii. 88.) In prose we have an address to his brother, entitled De Petitions Con-sulatus, in which he gives him very sound advice as to the best .method of attaining his object.

Quintus was married to Pomponia, sister of Atticus ; but, from incompatibility of temper, their union was singularly unhappy. As an example of their matrimonial squabbles, the reader may refer to a letter addressed to Atticus (v. 1), which con­tains a most graphic and amusing, description of a scene which took place in the presence of the lady's brother-in-law. (Appian, B. C* iv. 20 ; Dion Cass. xl. 7, xlvii. 10.)

7. M. tullius cicero, only son of the orator and his wife Terentia, was born in the year b. c. 65, on the very day, apparently (ad Att. i. 2), on which L. Julius Caesar and C. Marcius Figulus were elected consuls. He is frequently spoken of, while a boy, in terms of the warmest affection, in the letters of his father, who watched over his education with the most earnest care, and made him the companion of his journey to Cilicia. (b. c. 51.) The autumn after their arrival he was sent along with his school-fellow and cousin, Quintus, to pay a visit to king Deiotarus (ad Att. v. 17), while the proconsul and his legati were prosecuting the war against the highlanders of Ainanus. He returned to Italy at the end of b. c. 50, was in­vested with the manly gown at Arpimim in the course of March, b. c. 49 (ad Att. ix. 6, 19), being then in his sixteenth year, passed over to Greece and joined the army of Pompey, where he received the command of a squadron of cavalry, gaining great applause from his general and from the whole army by the skill which he displayed in military exercises, and by the steadiness with which he endured the toils of a soldier's life. (De Off. ii. 13.) After the battle of Pharsalia he remained at Brundisium until the arrival of Caesar from the East (ad Fain. xiv. 11, ad Att. xi. 18), was chosen soon afterwards (b. c. 46), along with young Quintus and a certain M. Caesius, to fill the office of aedile at Arpinum (ad Fam. xiii. 11), and the following spring (b. c. 45) expressed a strong wish to proceed to Spain and take part in the war against his former friends. He was, however, persuaded by his father to abandon this ill-judged project (ad Att. xii. 7), and it was determined that he should proceed to Athens and there prose­cute his studies, along with several persons of his own age belonging to the most distinguished families of Rome. Here, although provided with an allowance upon the most liberal scale (ad Att. xii. 27, 32), he fell into irregular and extravagant habits, led astray, it is said, by a rhetorician named Gorgias. The young man seems to have been touched by the remonstrances of Cicero and Atticus, and in a letter addressed to Tiro (ad Fam. xvi. 21), expresses great shame and sorrow for his past misconduct, giving an account at the same

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