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statue in the Cerameicus was hidden by a neigh­bouring figure of a horse; whence Carneades, who, as head of the Academy, bore him no great good­will, gave him the soubriquet of Kpvfyiinros.

(Orelli, Onom. Tull. ii. p. 144; Hitter, Ges~ chichte der Phil. xi. 5, 1; Brucker, Hist. Crit. Phil. II. ii. 9, 2 ; Baguet, de Clirysippi vita., doctrina et reliquiis Comment. Lovan. 1822 ; Petersen, Philo- sophiae Chrysippeae Fundamenta, Alton. 1827.) The general account of the doctrine of the Stoics is given under zeno. [G. E. L. C.]

CHRYSIPPUS (XpvffLTnros), the name of several physicians, who have been frequently con­founded together, and whom it is sometimes diffi­cult to distinguish with certainty.

1. Of Cnidos, has sometimes been confounded with the celebrated Stoic philosopher of the same name, who, however, lived about a century later. He was the son of Erineus (Diog. Laert. viii. 89), and must have lived in the fourth century b. c., as he was a contemporary of Praxagoras (Cels. De Med. Praef. lib. i. p. 5 ; Plin. H. N. xxvi. 6), a pupil of Eudoxus of Cnidos and Philistion (Diog. Lae'rt. I. c.), father of Chrysippus the physician to Ptolemy Soter (id. vii. 186), and tutor to Era-sistratus (id. 1. c. ; Plin. //. N. xxix. 3 ; Galen, De Ven. Sect. adv. Erasistr. c. 7, vol. xi. p. 171), Aristogenes (id. De Ven. sect. adv. Erasistr. Rom. Deg. c. 2, et dq Cur. Rat. per Ven. Sect. c. 2, vol. xi. pp. 197, 252), Medius (id. ilid.\ and Me-trodorus. (Sext, Emplr. cont. Mat/tern, i, 12, p, 271, ed. Fabric.) He accompanied his tutor Eudoxus into Egypt (Diog. Lae'rt. viii. 87), but nothing more is known of the events of his life. He wrote several works, which are not now ex­tant, and Galen says (De Ven. Sect. adv. Erasistr. Rom. Dec/, c. 5, vol. xi. p. 221), that even in his time they were in danger of being lost. Several of his medical opinions are, however, preserved by Galen, by whom he is frequently quoted and re­ferred to. (De Ven. Sect. adv. Erasistr.) <^c., vol. xi. pp. 149, &c., 171, &c., 197,221, &c.)

2. The son of the preceding, was a physician to Ptolemy Soter, king of Egypt, b. c. 323—283, and was falsely accused, scourged, and put to death, but on what charge is not mentioned. (Diog. Lae'rt. vii. 186.)

3. A pupil of Erasistratus (Diog. Lae'rt. vii. 186), who must have lived therefore in the third century b. c. Some persons think he was the author of the work De Brassica, " On the Cabbage," mentioned by Pliny (H, N. xx. 33) and Plinius Valerianus (De Med. iv. 29), but this is quite uncertain.

4. A writer on Agriculture, TeupyiKd, mention­ed by Diogenes Laertius (vii. 186), and distin­guished by him from the pupil of Erasistratus.

5. A follower of Asclepiades, who must there­fore (if Asclepiades of Bithynia be the person meant) have lived in the first century B. c. One of his works is quoted by Caelius Aurelianus (De Morb. C/tron. iv. 8, p. 537). and a physician of the same name is mentioned by him in several other passages (pp. 99, 107, 323, 376), but whether the same person be meant in each passage is uncertain.

6. A native of Cilicia, who may perhaps have been the tutor of Athenaeus (who was also born in. Cilicia), as Galen calls him the great-grandfather of the sect of the Pneumatici. (De Diff. Puls. ii. 10, vol. viii. p. 631.) He lived probably about the beginning of the Christian aera. [W. A. G ]



CHRYSIPPUS (Xpu<nV7ros), a native of Cap- padocia, was a celebrated ecclesiastical writer, who lived during the middle of the fifth century of the Christian aera. Chrysippus had two brothers, Cosmas and Gabriel, all of whom received a learned education in Syria, and were afterwards intrusted to the care of the abbot Euthymius at Jerusalem. There Chrysippus took orders, and became Oecono- mus in the " Monasterium Laurae," praefect of the church of the Holy Resurrection, and custos of the church of the Holy Cross, an office which he held during ten years. He wrote many works on eccle­ siastical matters, and his style is at once elegant and concise ; but his productions are lost except a treatise entitled " Homilia de Sancta Deipara," which is contained with a Latin translation in the second volume of "Auctuarius Duceanus," and some fragments of a small work entitled " Enco­ mium Theodori Martyris," which are extant in Eustathius Constantinopolitanus* " Liber de Statu Vitae Functorum." (Cave, Hist. Liter, vol. i. p. 357.) [W. P.]

CHRYSOBERGES, LUCAS (aovkxs Xpwo-€£py7]s), an important writer on the Canon law and other ecclesiastical and religious subjects, was chosen patriarch of Constantinople in a. d. 1155, presided at the synod of Constantinople in 1166, and died in 1167. His works are mostly lost, and only some fragments are printed. Thirteen " De-creta Synodalia" are contained in Leunclavius, " Jus Graeco-Romanum." They treat on important subjects, as, for instance, No. 2. " De Clericis qui se immiscent saecularibus Negotiis;"" No. 4. " De indecoris et scenicis Ritibus sanctorum notariormn Festo abrogandis;" No. 13. " Ne Clerici turpi-lucra fiant, aut medici," &c. A Greek poem in iambic verses, and another poem on fasting, both extant in MS. in the imperial library at Vienna, are attributed to Chrysoberges, and it is believed that he wrote his poem on fasting at the request of a lady, before he was appointed to the patriarchal see of Constantinople.

One Maximus Chrysoberges, who lived about 1400, wrote " Oratio de Processione Spiritus Sancti," dedicated to the Cretans, and which is printed with a Latin translation in the second vol. -of Leo Allatius, " Graecia Orthodoxa." (Cave, Hist. Liter, ii. p. 390, ad an. 1155; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. xi. pp. 338, 339, ix. 679.) [W. P.]

^CHRYSOCE'PHALUS, MACA'RIUS (M«-tcdpios XputfoKetyaAos^ a Greek ecclesiastical writer of great repute. The time at which he lived has been the subject of much investigation: Cave says that it is not correctly known ; Oudin thinks that he lived about a. d. 1290 ; but Fabricius is of opi­nion that he lived in the fourteenth century, as would appear from the fact, that the condemnation of Barlaam and Gregorius Acindynus took place in the synod of Constantinople in 1351, in presence of- a great number of prelates, among whom there was Macarius, archbishop of Philadelphia.

The original name of Chrysocephalus was Macarius, and he was also archbishop of Philadel­phia ; he was called Chrysocephalus because, hav­ing made numerous extracts from the works of the fathers, he arranged them under different heads, which he called xpucra /ce^aAata, or " Golden Heads." Chrysocephalus was a man of extensive learning: his works, which were very numerous, were entirely on religious subjects, and highly es­teemed in his day; but only one, of comparatively

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