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On this page: Chrysaor – Chryseis – Chrysermus – Chryses



Aquileia, flourished at the close of the fourth cen­tury and the commencement of the fifth. The circumstance of his baptizing Rufinus, about a. d. 370, shews, that he properly belongs to the for­mer. The year and place of his birth are alike unknown. It is supposed, that he was a Roman ; but nothing certain can be ascertained respecting his native place. Though he condemned the writ­ings of Origen, his friendship for Rufinus continued unabated. Rufinus also dedicated to him some of his works, especially his Latin translation of Euse-bius's ecclesiastical history. That Jerome had a great esteem for him may be inferred from the fact that he inscribed to him his commentaries on the prophet Habakkuk and some other writings. He urged Jerome to translate the Hebrew Scriptures into Latin. Being afterwards displeased with this father, he advised him in a letter to cease attacking Rufinus, and thus to put an end to the quarrel subsisting between those who had formerly been friends. He was a strenuous defender of Chrysos­tom's cause in the West, for which he received the thanks of the latter. (Chrysostom, Epist. 155, vol. iii. p. 689, ed. Benedict.) Chromatius is sup­posed to have died about 410. Jerome styles him, most learned and holy; but he seems to have been a man of judgment and determination rather than of great abilities. When Anastasius, the Roman pontiff, condemned both Origen and Rufi­nus, and signified his decision to Chromatius, the bishop of Aquileia was so far from coinciding with the pontifical decree, that he received Rufinus into the communion of the church.

Of his works there are extant Homilies and some Tracts on the beatitudes, on the remainder of Matthew's Gospel, chap, v., part of chap, vi., and on Matth. iii. 14. A few epistles also remain. The best edition of these pieces is that in the Bibliotheca Pair urn, vol. v., Lugd. 1677. They had been previously published at Basel, 1528 ; at Louvain, 1646 ; and at Basel, 1551. The epistle to Jerome respecting Rufinus, and one addressed to the emperor Honorius in defence of Chrysostom, have been lost. Among Jerome's works there is an epistle concerning the nativity of the blessed Mary addressed to Jerome under the names of Chromatius and Heliodorus, and another bearing the same names directed to the same father. Both are spurious. Several epistles addressed to Chro­ matius by Jerome are extant among the voluminous works of the latter. (Cave, Historia Literaria; Le Long, Bib. Sac. p. 675; Lardner's Works, vol. iv., Lond. 1827, 8vo.) [S. D.] CHRYSANTAS (Xpvffdvras), a Persian peer u<mjuos), is said by Xenophon to have been a man of superior powers of mind, but of diminutive bodily stature. (Cyrop. ii. 3. $ 5.) He is repre­ sented throughout the. Cyropaedeia as deservedly high in the favour of Cyrus, to whom he proved himself most useful, not only by his gallantry and promptitude in the field, but also by his wisdom in the council, and the zeal with which he forwarded the political plans of the prince. In the distribu­ tion of provinces after the conquest of Babylon, his services were rewarded, according to Xenophon (comp. Herod, i. 153), with the satrapy of Lydia and Ionia. (Xen. Cyrop. ii. 2. § 17, &c., 3. $§ 5 —7, 4. § 22, &c., iii. 1. §§ 1—6, 3. § 48, &c., iv. 1. §§ 3, 4, 3. §§ 15—23, v..3. § 6, vi. 2. §§ 21, 22, vii. M3,' 5. §§ 55, 56, viii. 1. § 1, &c., 4. § 9, &c., 6. § 7.) [E. E.]


CHRYSAOR (Xpvffdwp). 1. A son of Posei­don and Medusa, and consequently a brother of Pegasus. When Perseus cut off the head of Me­dusa, Chrysaor and Pegasus sprang forth from it. Chrysaor became by Callirrhoe the father of the three-headed Geryones and Echidna. (Hesiod, Theog. 280, &c.; Hygin. Fab. Praef. and 151.)

2. The god with the golden sword or arms. In this sense it is used as a surname or attribute of several divinities, such as Apollo (Horn. II. xv. 256), Artemis (Herod, viii. 77), and Demeter. (Horn. Hymn, in Cer. 4.) We find Chrysaoreus as a surname of Zeus with the same meaning, un­ der which he had a temple in Caria, which was a national sanctuary, and the place of meeting for the national assembly of the Carians. (Strab. xiv. p. 660 ; comp. Pans. v. 21. § 5 ; Steph. Byz. s. v. Xpvcraopis.} [L. S,]

CHRYSEIS (Xpvffrfts). [astynome.] An­ other mythical personage of this name occurs in Apollodorus (ii. 7. § 8). [L. S.]

CHRYSERMUS.CXprfcrep/Aos), a Corinthian, whom we find mentioned as the author of the fol­ lowing works :—1. A history of India, extending to at least 80 books. 2. A history of Persia. 3. A history of the Peloponnesus. 4. A treatise on rivers. (Plut. De Fiuv. 1, 18, 20, ParalL Min. 10; Stob. Floril. xxxix. 31, C. 11; Phot. Bibl. 167.) The period at which he nourished is not known. [E. E.]

CHRYSERMUS (Xptf<re0uos), an ancient phy­ sician, who lived probably at the end of the second or the beginning of the first century b. c., as he was one of the tutors of Heracleides of Ery- thrae (Gal. De Differ. Puts. iv. 10, vol. viii. p. 743), perhaps also of Apollonius Mus, who was a fellow-pupil of Heracleides. (Strab. xiv. 1, p. 182, ed. Tauchn.) His definition of the pulse has been preserved by Galen (L c. p. 741), as also one of his medical formulae (De Compos. Medicam. sec. log. ix. 2, vol. xiii. p. 243), and an anecdote of him is mentioned by Sextus Empiricus (Pyrrhon. Hypotyp. i. 14. § 84), and copied into Cramer's Anecd.Graec. vol. iii. p. 412, where for 'Epvffep/Aos we should read Xpvaep^os. He is also mentioned by Pliny. (//. N. xxii. 32.) [W. A. G.j

CHRYSES (Xpforis). 1. A son of Ardys and a priest of Apollo at Chryse. He was the father of Astynome (Chrysei's), and when he came to the camp of the Greeks, offering a rich ransom for the liberation of his daughter, he was treated by Aga­memnon with harsh words. Chryses then prayed to Apollo for vengeance, and the god sent a plague into the camp of the Greeks, which did not cease raging until Calchas explained the cause of it, and Odysseus took Chrysei's back to her father. (Horn. II 1.-10, &c.)

2. A son of Agamemnon or Apollo by Astynome. When Agamemnon restored Astynome to her fa­ther, she was with child, and, on giving birth to a boy, she declared him to be a son of Apollo, and called him Chryses. Subsequently, when Orestes and Iphigeneia fled to Chryses on their escape from Tauris, and the latter recognized in the fugitives his brother and sister, he assisted them in killing king Thoas. (Hygin. Fab. 120, &c.)

3. A son of Minos and the nymph Pareia. He lived with his three brothers in the island of Paras, and having murdered two of the companions of Heracles, they were all put to death by the latter. (Apollod. ii. 5. § 9, iii. 1. § 2.)

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