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white marble, a quarry of which was discovered, at a distance of only eight miles from the temple, by a shepherd named Pixodarus. Thirty-six of the columns were sculptured (perhaps Caryatides within the cello), one of them by the great sculptor Scopas. (Plin. xxxvi. 14. s. 21 : but many critics think the reading doubtful.) They were of the Ionic order of architecture, which was now first invented. (Plin. xxxvi. 23. s. 56, and especially Vitruv. iv. 1. §§ 7, 8.) Of the blocks of marble which composed the architrave some were as much as 30 feet long. In order to convey these and the columns to their places, Chersiphron and Metagenes invented some ingenious mechanical contrivances. (Vitruv. x. 6, 7, or x. 2. §§ 11, 12, ed. Schneider; Plin. xxxvi. 14. s. 21.) The temple was reckoned one of the seven wonders of the world, and is celebrated in several epigrams in the Greek Anthology, especially in two by Antipater of Sidon (ii. pp. 16, 20, JBrunck and Jacobs).
(Plin. H. N. vii. 25. s. 38, xvi. 37. s. 79, xxxvi. 14. s. 21 ; Vitruv. iii. 2. § 7, vii. Praef. § 16 ; Strab. xiv. pp. 640, 641 ; Liv. i. 45 • Diog. Lae'rt. ii. 9 ; Philo Byzant. de VII Orb. Mirac. p. 18 ; Hirt, Tempel der Diana von Epliesus^ Berl, 1807, Geschichte der Baukunst, i. pp. 232-4, 254, with a restoration of the temple, plate viii. ; Rasche, Lex. Univ. Rei Num. s. v. Epliesia, Eplie-sus; Eckhel, Doct. Num. Vet. ii. 512.) [P. S.]
CHIMAERA (Xijitcwpa), a fire-breathing monster, which, according to the Homeric poems, was of divine origin. She was brought up by Amiso-darus, king of Caria, and afterwards made great havoc in all the country around and among men. The fore part of her body was that of a lion, and the hind part that of a dragon, while the middle was that of a goat. (Horn. //. vi. 180, xvi. 328; comp. Ov. Met. ix. 646.) According to Hesiod (Tlteog. 319, &c.)5 she was a daughter of Typhaon and Echidna, and had three heads, one of each of the three animals before mentioned, whence she is called rpiK$fya\os or rpi&cvinaTos. (Eustath. ad Horn. p. 634 ; Eurip. Ion, 203, &c.; Apollod. i. 9. § 3, ii. 3. § 1.) She was killed by Bellerophon, and Virgil (Aen. vi. 288) places her together with other monsters at the entrance of Orcus. The origin of the notion of this fire-breathing monster must probably be sought for in the volcano of the name of Chimaera near Phaselis, in Lycia (Plin. H. N. ii. 106, v. 27; Mela. i. 15), or in the volcanic valley near the Cragus (Strab. xiv. p. 665, &c.), which is described as the scene of the events connected with the Chimaera. In the works of art recently discovered in Lycia, we find several representations of the Chimaera in the simple form of a species of lion still occurring in that country. [L. S.]
CHIMARUS, a statuary in the reign of Tibe rius, who made a statue and shrine of Germanicus, probably in bronze, on a marble base. (Inscr. ap. Donati, SuppL Inscr. ad Nov. Tlies. Mured, ii. p. 210.) [P.S.]
CHIOMARA (Xio^dpa), wife of Ortiagon,
king of Galatia, was taken prisoner by the Romans when Cn.ManliusVulso invaded Galatia, b.c. 189, and was violated bv the centurion into whose hands
she fell. She agreed, however, to pay him a large sum for her ransom; and when he had delivered her up to a body of her countrymen who met them at an appointed place for the purpose, she caused him to be put to death, and carried back his head to her husband. (Polyb. xxii. 21, and ap. Pint, de Mul. Virt. p. 225, ed. Tauchn.; Val. Max. vi. 1. Extern. 2 ; comp. Liv. xxxviii. 12.) Polybius says (I. c.), that he had himself conversed with her at Sarclis, and admired her high spirit and good sense. [E. E.]
CHION (XtW), the son of Matris, a noble citizen of Heracleia, on the Pontus, was a disciple of Plato. With the aid of Leon (or Leonides), Euxenon, and other noble youths, he put to death Clearchus, the tyrant of Heracleia. (b. c. 353.) Most of the conspirators were cut down by the tyrant's body-guards upon the spot, others were afterwards taken and put to death with cruel tortures, and the city fell again beneath the worse tyranny of Satyrus, the brother of Clearchus. (Memnon, ap. Phot. Cod. 224, pp. 222, 223, ed. Bekker ; Justin. xvi. 5.)
There are extant thirteen letters which are as cribed to Chion, and which are of considerable merit; but they are undoubtedly spurious. Pro bably they are the composition of one of the later Platonists. They were first printed in Greek in the Alcline collection of Greek Letters, Venet. 1499, 8vo.; again, in Greek and Latin, in the re print of that collection, Aurel. Allob. 3 606. The first edition in a separate form was by J. Caselius, printed by Steph. Myliander, Rostoch, 1583, 4to.; there was also a Latin translation published in the same volume with a Latin version of the fourth book of Xenophon's Cyropaedeia, by the same edi tor and printer, Rostoch, 1584, 4to. A more com plete edition of the Greek text, founded on a new recension of some Medicean MSS., with notes and indices, was published by J. T. Coberus, Lips. a::d Dresd. 1765, 8vo. The best edition, containing all that is valuable in the preceding ones, is that of J. Conr. Orelli, in the same volume with his edition of Memnon, Lips. 1816,8vo. It contains the Greek text, the Latin version of Caselius, the Pro legomena of A. G. Hoffmann, the Preface of Cobe rus, and the Notes of Coberus, Hoffmann, and Orelli. There are several selections from the let ters of Chion. (A. G. Hoffmann, Prolegom. ad Chionis Epist. Graec. futuram edit, conscripta ; Fabric. BibL Graec. i. p. 677.) [P. S.]
CHION, of Corinth, a sculptor, who attained to no distinction, not from the want of industry or skill, but of good fortune. (Vitruv. iii. Praef.) [P. S.J
CHIONE (Xiovn). 1. A daughter of Boreas and Oreithyia, and sister of Cleopatra, Zetes, and Calais. She became by Poseidon the mother of Eumolpus, and in order to conceal the event, she threw the boy into the sea; but the child was saved by Poseidon. (Apollod. iii. 15. §§ 2, 4; Paus. i. 38. § 3.)
2. A daughter of Daedalion, who was beloved by Apollo and Hermes on account of her beaut\\ She gave birth to twins, Autolycus and Philammon, the former a son of Hermes and the latter of Apollo. She was killed by Artemis for having found fault with the beauty of that goddess, and her father in his grief threw himself, from a rock of