Scanned text contains errors.
Greece, and begged him therefore to excuse them from siding with him unless he felt himself strong enough to protect them. (Polyb. xx. 3.) He continued to the end of his life to cultivate the friendship of the Romans, and sent his grandson to Rome for education. (Polyb. xxvii. 13.) [E. E.] 2. A grandson of the above. He received his education at Rome, and after Ids return to his own country adhered to the Roman cause; but here ends all resemblance between himself and his grandfather, who is called /caAos Kaya6ds by Poly-bius. (xxvii. 13.) It was this younger Charops by whose calumnies Antinous and Cephalus were driven in self-defence to take the side of Perseus [antinous] ; and he was again one of those who flocked from the several states of Greece to Aemilius Paullus at Amphipolis, in b. c. 167, to congratulate him on the decisive victory at Pydna in the preceding year, and who seized the opportunity to rid themselves of the most formidable of their political opponents by pointing them out as friends of Macedonia, and so causing them to be apprehended and sent to Rome. (Polyb. xxx. 10 ; Liv. xlv. 31; Diod. Exc. p. 578 ; see p. 569, b.) The power thus obtained Charops in particular so barbarously abused, that Polybius has recorded his belief " that there never had been before and never would be again a greater monster of cruelty." But even his cruelty did not surpass his rapacity and extortion, in which he was fully aided and seconded by his mother, Philotis. (Diod. Etxc.
p. 587.) His proceedings, however, were dis countenanced at Rome, and when he went thither to obtain the senate's confirmation of his iniquity, he not only received from them an unfavourable and threatening answer, but the chief men of the state, and Aemilius Paullus among the number, refused to receive him into their houses. Yet on his return to Epeirus he had the audacity to falsify the senate's sentence. The year 157 b. c. is com memorated by Polybius as one in which Greece was purged of many of her plagues : as an instance of this, he mentions the death of Charops at Brun- disium. (Polyb. xxx. 14, xxxi. 8, xxxii. 21, 22.) Both this man and his grandfather are called " Charopus" by Livy. [E. E.]
CHARTAS (Xdpras) and SYADRAS (2u«- 5/sas), statuaries at Sparta, were the teachers of Eucheirus of Corinth, and he of Clearchus of Rhegium, and he of the great statuary Pythagoras of Rhegium. (Paus. vi. 4. § 2.) Hence it is cal culated that Chartas and Syadras flourished about 540 b. c., a little before which time the Spartans sent to Croesus a crater of bronze ornamented with figures. (Herod, i. 70.) [P. S.]
CHEILON or CHILON (Xet'Acoi/, Xi\uv). 1. Of Lacedaemon, son of Damagetus, and one of the Seven Sages, flourished towards the commencement of the 6th century b. c. Herodotus (i. 59) speaks of him as contemporary with Hippocrates, the father of Peisistratus, and Diogenes Laertius tells us, that he was an old man in the 52nd Olympiad (b. c. 572), and held the office of Ephor Eponymus ir» 01. 56. (b. c. 556.) In the same author there is a passage which appears to ascribe to Cheilon the institution of the Ephoralty, but this contradicts the other well known and more authentic traditions. On the authority also of Aicidamas the rhetorician (a.p. Arist, Rhet, ii. 23.
we learn, that he was a member of the Spartan senate. It is said that he died of joy when his son gained the prize for boxing at the Olympic games, and that his funeral was attended by all the Greeks assembled at the festival. Such a token of respect seems to have been due not more to his wisdom than to the purity of his life, which, according to Diodorus, was not inconsistent with, his doctrine. (Comp. Gell. i. 3.) Diogenes Laertius mentions him as a writer of Elegiac poems, and records many sayings of his which shew that even at Sparta he may well have been remarkable for his sententious brevity, and several of which breathe also in other respects a truly Spartan spirit. Witness especially his denunciation of the use of gesture in speaking,—Aeyovra firj kivzlv rf)v x^P^' V-aviKov yap. The distinguishing excellence of man he considered to be sagacity of judgment in divining the future,—a quality which he himself remarkably exemplified in his foreboding, afterwards realized, of the evils to which Sparta might at any time be exposed from Cythera. (Diog. Laert. i. 68—73; Menag. ad loo.; Plat. Protag. p. 343; Plut. de El ap. Ddph. 3 ; Ael. V.PL iii. 17 ; Perizon. ad loo.; Plin. H. N. vii. 32 ; Diod. Exc. de Virt. et Vit. p. 552, ed. Wess; Arist. Rhet. ii. 12. § 14; Herod, vii. 235 ; comp. Thuc. iv. 53 ; Arnold, ad Zoo.)
2. A Spartan of the royal house of the Eury- pontids. On the death of Cleomenes III. in b. c. 220, his claim to the throne was disregarded, and the election fell on one Lycurgus, who was not a Heracleid. Cheilon was so indignant at this, that he devised a revolution, holding out to the people the hope of a division of landed property—a plan which Agis IV. and Cleomenes III. had succes sively failed to realize. Being joined by about 200 adherents, he surprised the ephori at supper, and murdered them. Lycurgus, however, whose house he next attacked, effected his escape, and Cheilon, having in vain endeavoured to rouse the people in his cause, was compelled to take refuge in Achaia. (Polyb. iv. 35, 81.) [E. E.]
2. Daughter of Leonidas II., king of Sparta, and wife to Cleombrotus II. When Leonidas, alarmed at the prosecution instituted against him by Lysander [Aais IV.], took refuge in the tem ple of Athena Chalcioecus, Cheilonis left her hus band, who was made king on the deposition of Leonidas, and, preferring to comfort her father in his adversity, accompanied him in his flight to Tegea. Afterwards, when Leonidas was restored, and Cleombrotus in his turn <was driven to take refuge in the temple of Poseidon, Cheilonis joined him in his altered fortunes, saved his life by her entreaties from her father's vengeance, and, again refusing to share the splendour of a throne, went with him into banishment; " so that, had not Cleombrotus," says Plutarch, " been spoilt by vain ambition, his wife's love would have made him deem his exile a more blessed lot than the kingdom which he lost." (Plut. Agis, 11, 12, 16—18.) [E. E.]
CHEIRISOPHUS (Xe/pforo^os), a Lacedaemonian, was sent by the Ephors with 700 heavy-armed men (800 according to Diodorus), to aid Cyrus in his expedition against his brother Arta-xerxes, b. c. 401, and joined the prince on his
2 y 2