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CHARITON (Xapirwv), an oculist, who lived ; in or before the second century after Christ, as one of his medical formulae is quoted by Galen (De Antid. ii. 13. vol. xiv. p. 180), and also by Aetius (iv. 1, 18, p. 620). He is also mentioned in an ancient Latin inscription, which is explained at length by C. G. Kiihn, in his Index Medico-rum Ocidariorum inter Graecos Romanesque, Lips. 1829, 4to., fasc. ii. p, 3, &c. See also Kiihn's Additam. ad Elendi. Medic. Vet, a J. A, Fabricio* Sec. ex- kibttum. Lips. 1826, 4to., fasc. iv. [W. A. G.] CHARI'XENA (Xap^eVa), a lyric poetess, mentioned by Eustathius, who calls her Troirtrpia KpovpciTwv. (Ad Iliad. /8' 711.) Aristophanes al ludes to her in a passage which the Scholiast and lexicographers explain as a proverbial expression implying that she was " silly and foolish." (Eccle- siaz. 943 ; Suidas, s. v.; Etymol, Mag. and Hesy- chius, s. v. €7rl Xapi£ev7js.) She is said to have been also a flute-player, and an erotic poetess. (Etym. Mag. and Hesych. I. c.) Nothing is known of her time or country. The reference to her as an erotic poetess has been understood as indicating that she belonged to the Aeolic lyric school; and the words of Hesychius (dp%cua ouau) perhaps imply that she lived at a very early period. [P. S.] CHARI'XENUS (Xaplfrvos) or CHARI'X- ENES (Xapi|<=yes), a physician, who probably lived in the first century after Christ, as he is mentioned by Asclepiades Pharmacion. Several of his medical formulae have been preserved by Galen and Ae'tms. (Gal. De Compos. Medicam. sec. Loc. iii. 3, v. 3, vii. 2, 4, 5, vol. xii. pp. 685, 829, xiii. pp. 48, 49, 50, 82, 102 ; Aet. De Med. ii. 4, 52, p. 406.) [W. A. G.] CHA'RMADAS, philosopher. [charmides.] CHA'RMIDES (Xap^s). 1. An Athenian, son of Glaucon, was cousin to Critias and uncle by the mother's side to Plato, who introduces him in the dialogue which bears his name as a very young man at the commencement of the Peloponnesian war. (Comp. Heind. ad Plat. Charm, p. 154, and the authorities there referred to.) In the same dialogue he is represented as a very amiable youth and of surpassing beaut}'-, and he appears again in the " Protagoras" at the house of Callias, son of Hipponicus. [See p. 567, b.] We learn from Xenophon, that he was a great favourite with So crates, and was possessed of more than ordinary ability, though his excessive diffidence deprived his country of the services which he might have rendered her as a statesman. In b. c. 404 he was one of the Ten who were appointed, over and above the thirty tyrants, to the special government of the Peiraeeus, and he was slain fighting against Thrasybiilus at the battle of Munychia in the same year. (Xen. Mem. iii. 6, 7, Hell. ii. 4. § 19 ; Schneid. ad loc.J
2. Called also Charmadas by Cicero, a disciple of Cleitomachus the Carthaginian, and a friend and companion (as he had been the fellow-pupil) of Philo of Larissa, in conjunction with whom he is said by some to have been the founder of a fourth Academy. He flourished, therefore, towards the end of the second and at the commencement of the first century b. c. Cicero, writing in b. c. 45, speaks of him as recently dead. (Tusc. Disp. i. 24.) On the same authority we learn, that he was remarkable for his eloquence and for the great compass and retentiveness of his memory. His philosophical opinions were doubtless coincident with
those of philo. (Cic. Acad. Quaest. iv. 6, Orat. 10, de Orat. ii. 88 ; Plin. H. N. vii. 24 ; Fabric. Bill. Graec. iii. p. 1677 and the authorities there re ferred to.) [E. E.]
CHARMINUS (Xap.uTvos), an Athenian general, who is first mentioned by Thucydides as coming to Samos in b. c. 412. Samos was at this time the head-quarters of the Athenian fleet, and the force there amounted to upwards of 100 ships, of which 30 were detached to besiege Chios, while the rest (and with them Charminus) remained to watch the Spartan fleet under the high-admiral Astyochus at Miletus. He was detached a very short time afterwards with twenty vessels to the coast of Lycia, to look out for the Spartan fleet conveying the deputies who were to examine the complaints made against Astyochus. On this service he fell in with Astyochus, who was himself on the look-out to convoy his countrymen. Char-minus was defeated, and lost six ships, but escaped with the rest to Halicarnassus. We afterwards find him assisting the oligarchical party at Samos in the ineffectual attempt at a revolution. (Thuc. viii. 30, 41, 42, 73; Aristoph. Thesmoph. 804.) [A.H.C.]
CHARMINUS, a Lacedaemonian, was sent by Thibron, the Spartan harmost in Asia, to the Cyrean Greeks, then at Selymbria and in the service of Seuthes, to induce them to enter the Lacedemonian service against Persia, b. c. 399. (Xen. Anab. vii. 6. § 1, &c., Hell. iii. 1. § 6 ; Diod. xiv. 37.) On this occasion he defended Xenophon from the imputation thrown ou.t against him by some of the Cvreans, of treacherous collusion with Seuthes to
defraud them of their pay, and he also aided them in obtaining what was due to them from the Thracian prince. A great portion of this consisted in cattle and slaves, and the sale of these arid the distribution of the proceeds was undertaken, at Xenophon's request, by Charminus and his col league, Polynicus, who incurred much odium in the management of the transaction. (Xen. Anab. vii. 6." § 39, 7. §§ 13—19, 56.) [E. E.]
CHARMIS (Xa/^is), a physician of Marseilles, who came to Rome in the reign of Nero, a. d. 54 —68, where he acquired great fame and wealth by reviving the practice of cold bathing. (Plin. H. N. xxix. 5.) He is said to have received from one patient two hundred thousand sesterces, or 15621. 10s. (Plin. If. N. xxix. 8.) He was also the inventor of an antidote which was versified by Damocrates, and is preserved by Galen. (De Antid. ii. 1, 4, vol. xiv. pp. 114, 126.) [W. A. G.]
CHAROEADES (XapoLadrjs^ called Chariadea by Justin (iv. 3), was joined in command with Laches in the earliest expedition sent from Athens to Sicilv (b. c. 427), and was killed soon afterwards. (Thuc. iii. 86, 90; Diod.xii. 54.) [A.H.C.I
CHARON (Xapco^), a son of Erebos, the aged and dirty ferryman in the lower world, who con veyed in his boat the shades of the dead—though only of those whose bodies were buried—across the rivers of the lower world. (Virg. Aen. vi. 295, &c.; Senec. Here. fur. 764.) For this service he was paid by each shade with an obolus or danace, which coin was placed in the mouth of every dead body previous to its burial. This notion of Charon seems to be of late origin, for it does not occur in any of the early poets of Greece. (Paus. x. 28. § 1; Juven. iii. 267 ; Eustath. ad Horn. p. 1666.) Charon was represented in the Lesche of Delphi by Polygnotus. [L. S.j'