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in their own language. (Senec. De Benef. i. 3 ; comp. Diod. v. 73.)

The worship of the Charites was believed to have been first introduced into Boeotia by Eteo- clus or Eteocles, the son of Cephissus, in the valley of that river. (Pans. ix. 35. § 1; Theocrit. xvi. 104; Find. Ol. xiv.) At Orchomenos and in the island of Paros a festival, the %ap/itna or xapn-Tjcria, was celebrated to the Charites. (Eustath. ad Horn. p. 1843 ; Apollod. iii. 15. § 7.) At Orcho­ menos they were worshipped from early times in the form of rude stones, which were believed to have fallen from heaven in the time of Eteocles. (Pans. ix. 38. § 1 ; Strab. ix. p. 414.) Statues of them are mentioned in various parts of Greece, as at Sparta, on the road from Sparta to Amyclae, in Crete, at Athens, Elis, Hermione, and others. (Paus. i. 22. § 8, ii. 34. § 10, iii. 14. § 6, vi. 24. §5.) They were often represented as the com­ panions of other gods, such as Hera, Hermes, Eros, Dionysus, Aphrodite, the Horae, and the Muses. In the ancient statues of Apollo at Delos and Delphi, the god carried the Charites on his hand. In the early times the Charites were represented dressed, but afterwards their figures were always made naked, though even Paiisanias (ix. 35. § 2) did not know who had introduced the custom of representing them naked. Specimens of both dressed and naked representations of the Charites are still extant. Their character is that of unsus­ picious maidens in the full bloom of life, and they usually embrace one another. Their attributes differ according to the divinities upon whom they attend; as the companions of Apollo they often carry musical instruments, and as the companions of Aphrodite they carry myrtles, roses, or dice, the favourite game of youth. (Hirt, My thai. Bilderb. ii. p. 215, &c.) [L. S.]

CHARISIUS (Xapfcnos), a son of Lycaon, to whom tradition ascribed the foundation of Chari- siae in Arcadia. (Paus. viii. 3. § 1; Steph. Byz. s. -y.) [L. S.]

CHARISIUS (XapiVios), a Greek orator and a contemporary of Demosthenes, wrote orations for others, in which he imitated the style of Lysias. He was in his turn imitated by Hegesias. (Cic. Brut. 83.) His orations, which were extant in the time of Quintilian and Rutilius Lupus, must have been of considerable merit, as we learn from the former writer (x. i. § 70), that they were ascribed by some to Menander. Rutilius Lupus (i. 10, ii. 6) has given two extracts from them. (Comp. R,uhn-ken, ad Rutil. Lup. i. 10 ; Westermann, Gescli. der Griech. Beredtsamkeit. § 54, n. 34.)

CHARISIUS, a presbyter of the church of the Philadelphians in the fifth century. Shortly be­fore the general council held at Ephesus, a. n. 431, Antonius and James, presbyters of Constantinople, and attached to the Nestorian party, came to Phi­ladelphia with commendatory letters from Anasta-sius and Photius, and cunningly prevailed upon several of the clergy and laity who had just re­nounced the errors of the Q.uartodecimani (Nean-der, Kirchengescli. ii. 2, p. 645), to subscribe a prolix confession of faith tinctured with the Nestorian errors. But Charisius boldly withstood them, and therefore they proscribed him as a heretic from the communion of the pious. When the council assembled at Ephesus, Charisius accused before the fathers that composed it Anastasius, Photius, and James, exhibiting against them a



book of indictment, and the confession which they had imposed upon the deluded Philadelphians. He also presented a brief confession of his own faith, harmonizing with the Nicene creed, in order that he might clear himself from the suspicion of heresy. The time of his birth and death is un­known. He appears only in connexion with the Ephesian council, a. d. 431.

The indictment which he presented to the synod, his confession of faith, a copy of the expo­ sition of the creed as corrupted by Anastasius and Photius, the subscribings of those who were mis­ led, and the decree of the council after hearing the case, are given in Greek and Latin in the Sacro- sancta Concilia* edited by Labbe and Cossart, voL iii. p. 673, &c., Paris, 1671, folio. See also Cave's Historia Liter aria j pp. 327, 328, ed. Lond. 1688, fol. [S. D.]

CHARISIUS, AURE'LIUS ARCA'DIUS, a Roman jurist, one of the latest in time of those whose works are cited in the Digest. Herennius Modestinus, who was living in the reign of Gor-dianus III., is usually considered to be the last jurist of the classical period of Roman jurispru­dence. " Hie oracula jurisconsultorum obmutuere," says the celebrated Jac. Godefroi (Manuale Juris, i. 7), " sic ut ultimum JCtoruin Modestinum dicere vere liceat." For an interval of 80 or 90 years after Modestinus, no jurist appears whose works are honoured with citation in the Digest, unless Julius Aquila or Furius Anthianus belongs to that interval. The only two who can be named with certainty as posterior to Modestinus are Charisius and Hermogenianus. Of these two, the priority of date is probably, for several reasons, to be assigned to the former. It may be here men­tioned, that Hermogenianus occupies the last place in the Florentine Index. Charisius cites Modes­tinus with applause (Dig. 50. tit. 4. s. 18. § 26)t but his date is more closely to be collected from Dig. 1. tit. 11. s. un. § 1, where he states that ap­peal from the sentences of the praefecti praetorio has been abolished. Now, this appeal was abolished by Constantine the Great, A. d. 331 (Cod. 7- tit. 62. s. 19), and, from the language of Charisius in Dig. l.tit. 11, it may be inferred, that Constantine was alive at the time when that passage was written. Charisius is sometimes (e. g. Dig. 22. tit. 5. s. 1. pr.) cited in the Digest by the name " Arcadius, qui et Charisius," and by Joannes Lydus (de Magist. Pop. Rom. i. c. 14), he is cited by the name Aurelius simply. The name Charisius was not uncommon in the decline of the empire, and, when it occurs on coins, it is usually spelled Carisius, as if it were etymologically con­nected with Cams rather than %"Pts- The jurist, according to Panziroli (de Clar. Jur. Interpp. pp. 13, 59), was the same with the Arcadius to whom Carus, Carinus, and Numerianus directed a re­script, a. d. 283. (Cod. 9. tit. 11. s. 4.) There is a constitution of Diocletianus and Maximianus, addressed, a. d. 300-2, to Arcadius Chresimus. (Cod. 2. tit. 3. s. 27.) Panziroli would here read Charisius for Chresimus, and would also identify our Charisius with the Carisius (Vat. M. S.; vulg. lect. Charissimus), praeses of Syria, to whom was addressed (a. d. 290) an earlier constitution of the same emperors. (Cod. 9. tit. 41. s. 9.) These identifications, however, though not absolutely impossible, rest upon mere conjecture, and would require the jurist to have lived to a very advanced

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