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CHARIDEMUS.

before the arrival of the Athenian squadron des­tined for the Hellespont under Cephisodotus ; and Charidemus, on his return to Europe, in spite of his promise, lent his services to Cotys, whose daughter he married, and laid siege to Crithote and Elaeus. (Dem. c. Aristocr. pp. 669-674.) On the murder of Cotys, b. c. 358, he adhered to the cause of Cersobleptes, on whose behalf he conducted the struggle with the Athenians, both by war and diplomacy, for the possession of the Chersonesus. He compelled Cephisodotus to submit, with respect to it, to a compromise most unfavourable to his country; and though Athenodorus (uniting with Amadocus and Berisades, and taking advantage of the national indignation excited by the murder of Miltocythes, which Charidemus had procured from the Oardians) obliged Cersobleptes to consent to a threefold division of the kingdom, and to the sur­render of the Chersonesus to Athens,—yet, on the arrival of Chabrias with only one ship, the crafty Euboean again renounced the treaty, and drove the Athenian general to accept another still more un­favourable to Athens than that of Cephisodotus. But this was repudiated by the Athenians; and, at length, after much fruitless negotiation, Chares having arrived in the Hellespont with a sufficient force and with the authority of commander auto-crator, Charidemus consented to ratify the treaty of Athenodorus, still, however, contriving to retain the town of Cardia ; and his partizans among the orators at Athens having persuaded the people that they owed to him the cession of the Chersonesus (a strange delusion, if the narrative of events in Demosthenes may be depended on), they rewarded his supposed services with the franchise of the city and a golden crown. (Dem. c. Aristocr. pp. 650, 674—682; Arist. Rhet. ii. 23. § 17 ; comp. Isocr. de pcig. p. 169, c.) This appears to have been in B. c. 357. In b. c. 352, hoping perhaps to recover Arnphipolis through his aid, they passed a decree in spite of the opposition of Demosthenes and his party (c. Aristocr. passim), pronouncing the person of Charidemus inviolable, and rendering any one who should kill him amenable to justice from any part of the Athenian empire. [cersobleptes.] In b.c. 349, after the recall of Chares, Charidemus was appointed by the Athenians as commander in the Olynthian war. In conjunction with the Olynthians, he ravaged Pallene and Bottiaea, which seem to have been then in the hands of Philip ; but he caused much offence by his insolent and profligate conduct at Olynthus, and in the ensuing year he was superseded and replaced by Chares. (Philochor. ap. Dionys. p. 735 ; Theopomp. ap. Athen. x. p. 436, c.) Henceforth he disappears from history, though he has been identified by some with the Charidemus mentioned immediately below, in opposition, we think, to internal evidence. (Mitford's Greece^ ch. 48, sec. 1; Thirl wall's Greece^ vol. v. p. 192, note 4, vol. vi. p. 101.)

2. An Athenian, who in b. c. 358 was sent with Antiphon as ambassador to Philip of Macedon, ostensibly to confirm the friendship between the king and the Athenians, but authorized to nego­tiate with him secretly for the recovery of Amphi-polis, and to promise that the republic, in return for it, would make him master of Pydna. This was the §pv\Qv>Ji£v6v ttotg dTropprjTov to which Demosthenes refers in Olynfh. ii. p. 19, ad fin. (Theopomp. ap. Suid. s. v. rl effri to kv rots QtAnnriKois, k. t. A.; comp. Diod.

685

CHARILAUS.

xiii. 49 ; Deinarch. c. Dem. p. 91, ad fin.} It was

perhaps this same Charidemus whom the Athenians,

had they not been restrained by Phocion's party,

would have made general to act against Philip after

the battle of Chaeroneia, b. c. 338, and who, being

at the court of Macedonia as an envoy at the time

of Philip's murder, b. c. 336, transmitted to De-

mosthenes, whose friend he was, the earliest intel-

ligence of that event. (Plut. Phoc. 16, Dem. 22 ;

Aesch. c. Ctes. p. 64.) He was one of the orators

whose surrender was required by Alexander in

b. c. 335, after the destruction of Thebes, and the

only one in whose behalf he refused to recede from

his demand on the mediation of Demades. Chari-

demus, being thus obliged to leave his country,

fled to Asia, and took refuge with Dareius, by

whose orders he was summarily put to death in

b. c. 333, shortly before the battle of Issus, having

exasperated the king by some advice, too freely

given, tending to abate his confidence in his power

and in the courage of his native troops. (Arr.

Anab. i. 10 ; Plut. Dem. 23, Plioc, 17; Diod. xvii.

15, 30 ; Deinarch. c. Dem. p. 94.) Diodorus (xvii.

30) speaks of Charidemus as having been high in

favour with Philip of Macedon ; but the inconsis-

tency of this with several of the authorities above

referred to is pointed out by Wesseling. (Ad Diod.

CHARIDEMUS (Xapi'S^os), a Greek phy­ sician, who was one of the followers of Erasistratus1 and probably lived in the third century B. c. He is mentioned by Caelius Aurelianus (De Morb. Acut. iii. 15. p. 227), and was probably the father of the phj^sician Hermogenes. [W. A. G.]

CH ARIL A US (Xapi\aos). 1. Brother of Mae-andrius, tyrant of Samos. When the Persians in­vaded the island, towards the commencement of the reign of Dareius Hystaspis, for the purpose of establishing Syloson, the brother of Polycrates, in the tyranny, Maeandrius submitted to them, and agreed to abdicate; but Charilaiis, who was some­what crazy, obtained leave from his brother to fall with a body of soldiers on a party of the most dis­tinguished Persians, who were sitting in front of the acropolis, and waiting for the ratification of the treaty. The consequence of this treacherous mur­der was a wholesale massacre of the Samians by order of the Persian general, Otanes. (Herod, iii. 144—149.)

2. An Italian Greek, one of the chief men of Palaepolis, who, together with Nymphius, betrayed the town to Q. Publilius Philo, the Roman procon­sul, in the second Samnite war (b.c. 323), and drove out the Samnite garrison. (Liv.viii. 25,26.) [E. E.]

CHARILAUS (Xapi\aus}, a Locrian, and a dramatic poet. Whether he wrote tragedies or comedies is uncertain, nor is anything further known of him than that plays of his were repre­ sented at Athens in b. c. 328. (Fabric. BibL Graec. ii. p. 428, ed. Harles.) [E. E.]

CHARILAUS or CHARI'LLUS (Xapl\aos, XapiAAos), a king of Sparta, son of Polydectes, and 7th of the Eurypontids, is said by Plutarch to have received his name from the general joy ex­cited by the justice of his uncle Lycurgus when he placed him, yet a new-born infant, on the royal seat, and bade the Spartans acknowledge him for their king. (Plut. Lye. 3 ; Paus. ii. 36 ; Just. iii. 2 ; Schol. ad Plat. Rep. x. p. 474.) Accord­ing to Plutarch, the reforms projected by Lycurgus on his return from his voluntary exile at first

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