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On this page: Charicleides – Charicleitus – Charicles – Chariclo – Charidemus

CHARIDEMUS.

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CHARICLES.

at the entrance of the harbour of Rhodes. There is no authority for the statement that its legs ex­tended over the mouth of the harbour. It was overthrown and broken to pieces by an earthquake 56 years after its erection. (b. c. 224, Euseb. Chron.) and Chron. Pasck. sub 01. 139. 1 ; Polyb. v. 88, who places the earthquake a little later, in B. c. 218.) Strabo (xiv. p. 652), says, that an oracle forbade the Rhodians to restore it. (See also Philo Byzant. de VII Orbis Miraculis^ c. iv. p. 15.) The fragments of the colossus remained on the ground 923 years, till they were sold by Moawiyeh, the general of the caliph Othman IV., to a Jew of Emesa, who carried them away on 900 camels. (a. d. 672.) Hence Scaliger calculated the weight of the bronze at 700,000 pounds. Considering the mechanical difficulties both of modelling and of casting so large a statue, the nicety required to fit together the separate pieces in which it must necessarily have been cast, and the skill needed to adjust its proportions, according to the laws of optics, and to adapt the whole style of the composition to its enormous size, we must assign to Chares a high place as an inventor in his art.

There are extant Rhodian coins, bearing the head of the Sun surrounded with rays, probably copied from the statue of Chares or from some of the other colossal statues of the sun at Rhodes. (Eckhel, Doct. Num. ii. pp. 602-3 ; Rasche, Lex. Univ. JKei Num. s. v. Khodus, A., b,, 11, &c.) There are two epigrams on the colossus in the Greek Anthology. (Brunck, Anal. i. p. 143, iii. pp. 198-9 ; Jacobs, i. 74, iv. 166. Respecting these epigrams, and the question whether Laches completed the work which Chares commenced, see Jacobs, Comment, i. 1, pp. 257-8, iii. 2, p. 8, and .Bbttiger, Andeutungen zu 24 Vortr'dgen uber die Archaologie, pp. 199—201.) [P. S.]

CHARICLES (Xapt/tATjs), an Athenian dema­ gogue, son of Apollodorus, was one of the commis­ sioners (^tjttjtcu) appointed to investigate the affair of the mutilation of the Hermae in b.c. 415, on which occasion he inflamed the passions of the people by representing the outrage as connected with a plot for the destruction of the democracy. (Thuc, vi. 27—29, 53, 60, &c.; Andoc. de Myst. p. 6.) In b. c. 413 he was sent in command of a squadron round the Peloponnesus together with Demosthenes, and succeeded with him in fortifying a small peninsula on the coast of Laconia, to serve as a position for annoying the enemy. (Thuc. vii. 20, 26.) In b. c. 404 he was appointed one of the thirty tyrants; nor did he relinquish under the new government the coarse arts of the demagogue which had distinguished him under the democracy, still striving to curry favour with the dominant party by an unscrupulous advocacy of their most violent and tyrannical measures. We may con­ clude, that he was one of the remnant of the Thirty who withdrew to Eleusis on the establishment of the council of Ten, and who, according to Xeno- phon, were treacherously murdered in a conference by the leaders of the popular party on the restora­ tion of democracy in b. c. 403. (Xen. Hell. ii. 3. § 2, 4. §§ 24, 43, Mem. i. 2. §§ 31, &c.; Arist. Polit. v, 6, ed. Bekk.; Lys. c. Erat. p. 125; Isocr. de Big. p. 355, d.) In the passage last referred to Charicles is mentioned as having been driven into banishment previously to his appointment as one of the tyrants. [E. E.]

CHARICLEIDES ( XapmAei'o^s), a writer of the new comedy, of uncertain date. A play of his called f/A/\u(ns (the Chain) is quoted by Athenaeus (vii. p. 325, d.). [E. E.]

CHARICLEITUS (Xap'ucXeiros ), one of the commanders of the Rhodian fleet, which, in b. c. 1 90, defeated that of Antiochus the Great under Hannibal and Apollonius, off Side in Pnmphylia. (Liv. xxxiv. 23, 24.) [E. E.]

CHARICLES (Xapt/cAT??), an eminent physi­cian at Rome, who sometimes attended on the Emperor Tiberius, and who is said to have pre­dicted his approaching death from the weak state of his pulse, a. d. 37. (Suet. Tiber. 72 ; Tac. Ami. vi. 50.) Some medical formulae are pre­served by Galen (De Compos. Medicam. sec. Locos. ii. 1, 2. vol. xii. pp. 556, 579, &c.) which may perhaps belong to the same person. [W. A. G.]

CHARICLO (XapiK\d). 1. The wife of the centaur Cheiron, and mother of Carystus. She was a daughter of Apollo, and according to others of Perses or of Oceanus. (Schol. ad Pind. Pyth* iv. 181; Ov. Met. ii. 636.)

2. A nymph, the wife of Eueres and mother of Teiresias. It was at her request that Teiresias, who had been blinded by Athena, obtained from this goddess the power to understand the voices of the birds, and to walk with his black staff as safely as if he saw. (Apollod, iii. 6. $ 7 ; Callim. Hymn. in Pali. 67, &c.) [L. S.] '

CHARIDEMUS (Xapflty/ww). 1. OfEuboea,

son of a woman of Oreus by an obscure father, if we may believe the account of Demosthenes in a speech filled with invective against him. (Dem. c. Aristocr. p. 691.) On the same authority, we learn that he began his military career as a slinger among the light-armed, that he then became com­mander of a pirate vessel, and finally the captain of a mercenary band of " free companions." (Dem. c. Aristocr. pp. 668, 669.) In this capacity he first entered the Athenian service under Iphicrates, who had been sent against Amphipolis, about b. c. 367. At the end of somewhat more than three years, Amphipolis agreed to surrender to the Athe­nians, and delivered hostages to Iphicrates for the performance of the promise : these, on being superseded by Timotheus, he entrusted to Chari-demus, who restored them to the Amphipolitans in spite of the decree of the Athenian people requir­ing them to be sent to Athens, and then passed over to Cotys, king of Thrace, who was hostile to the Athenians at the time. In b. c. 360, when Timotheus was meditating his attack on Amphi­polis, Chaiidemus was engaged to enter the service of the Olynthians, who were preparing to defend it ; but, on his passage from Cardia in the Cherso-nesus, he was captured by the Athenians, and con­sented to aid them against Olynthus. After the failure of Timotheus at Amphipolis in the same year, Charidemus crossed over to Asia and entered the service of Memnon and Mentor, brothers-in-law of Artabazus, who had been imprisoned by Autophradates, but whose cause they still main­tained. [artabazus, No. 4.] He deceived his employers, however, and seized the towns of Scep­sis, Cebren, and Ilium ; but, being closely pressed by Artabazus after his release from prison, he ap­plied to the Athenians to interpose in his behalf, promising to help them in recovering the Cherso-nesus. Artabazus, however, allowed him to depart uninjured, by the advice of Memnon. and Mentor,

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