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On this page: Ceroessa – Cerretanus – Cersobleptes – Cestius

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CERSOBLEPTES.

GescJtichte der Ketzereien, vol. i.; Neander, Kir- chengeschichte., vol. i. part 2; Mosheim, Institut. Hist. Christ. Major., and his Comment, de Rebiis Christianoruin ante Constant. M.; Schmidt, Cerinth ein Judaisirender Christ,, in his Bib. fur Kritik und Exegese des N. T. vol. i.; Paulus, Historia Cerinthi, in his Introductionis in N. T. capita selec- tiora ; Lardner, History of Heretics, Works, vol. iv., 4to. edition.) [S. D.]

CEROESSA (Kepdeoro-a), a daughter of Zeus by lo, and born on the spot where Byzantium was afterwards built. She was brought up by a nymph of the place, and afterwards became the mother of Byzas. (Steph. Byz. s. v. BffcWjoj'.) From this story it must be inferred, that Argos had some share in founding the colony of Byzantium, which is otherwise called a colony of Megara. (Muller, Dor. i. 6. § 9.) [L. S.]

CERRETANUS, Q. AULIUS, twice consul in the Samnite war, first in b. c. 323 with C. Sul-picius Longus, when he had the conduct of the war in Apulia, and a second time in 319 with L. Papirius Cursor, when he conquered the Ferentani and received their city into surrender. (Liv. viii. 37; Diod. xviii. 26 ; Liv. ix. 15, 16 ; Diod. xviii. 58.) He was magister equitum to the dictator Q. Fabius Maxim us in 315, and fought a battle against the Samnites without consulting the dicta­tor, in which he was slain after killing the Samnite general. (Liv. ix. 22.)

CERSOBLEPTES (KefwrogAeVnys), was son of Cotys, king of Thrace, on whose death in B. c. 358 he inherited the kingdom in conjunction with Berisades and Amadocus, who were probably his brothers. He was very young at the time, and the whole management of his affairs was assumed by the Euboean adventurer, Charidemus, who was connected by marriage with the royal family, and who bore the prominent part in the ensuing con­tests and negotiations with Athens for the posses­sion of the Chersonesus, Cersobleptes appearing throughout as a mere cipher. (Dem, c. Aristocr. pp. 623, &c., 674, &c.) The peninsula seems to have been finally ceded to the Athenians in b. c. 357, though they did not occupy it with their settlers till 353 (Diod. xvi. 34); nor perhaps is the language of Isocrates (de Pac. p. 163, d. {m} yap cfiecrQe ^Tjre Kep<ro€\<=Tr7r)v, k. r. A.) so decisive against this early date as it may appear at first sight, and as Clinton (on b. c. 356) seems to think it. (Comp. Thirl wall's Greece, vol. v. pp. 229, 244.) For some time after the cession of the Chersonesus, Cersobleptes continued to court assi­duously the favour of the Athenians, being perhaps restrained from aggression by the fear of their squadron in the Hellespont; but on the death of Berisades, before 352, he conceived, or rather Cha­ridemus conceived for him, the design of excluding the children of the deceased prince from their in­heritance, and obtaining possession of all the do­minions of Cotys ; and it was with a view to the furtherance of this object that Charidemus obtained from the Athenian people, through his party among the orators, tht singular decree in his favour for which its mover Aristocrates was impeached, but unsuccessfully, in the speech of Demosthenes yet extant. (Dem. c. Aristocr. pp. 624, 625, 680.) [charidemus.] From a passing allusion in this oration (p. 681), it appears that Cersobleptes had been negotiating with Philip for a combined attack on the Cliersonesus, which however came to nothing

CESTIUS.

in consequence of the refusal of Amadocus to allow Philip a passage through his territory. But after the passing of the decree above-mentioned, Philip became the enemy of Cersobleptes, and in b. c. 352 made a successful expedition into Thrace, gained a firm ascendancy in the country, and brought away a son of Cersobleptes as a hostage. (Dem. Olynth. i. p. 12 ad fin.; Isocr. Phil. p. 86, c.; Aesch. de Fals. Leg. p. 38.) At the time of the peace be­ tween Athens and Philip in b. c. 346, we find Cersobleptes again involved in hostilities with the Macedonian king, who in fact was absent in Thrace when the second Athenian embassy arrived at Pella, and did not return to give them audience till he had completely conquered Cersobleptes. (Dem. de Fals. Leg. pp. 390, 391, de Cor. p. 235 ; Aesch. de Fals. Leg. pp. 29, 40, &c.) In the course of the next three years, Cersobleptes seems to have reco­ vered strength sufficient to throw off the yoke, and, according to Diodorus, persisted in his attacks on the Greek cities on the Hellespont. Accordingly, in b. c. 343, Philip again inarched against him, defeated him in several battles, and reduced him to the condition of a tributary. (Diod. xvi. 71; Ep. Phil, ad Ath. ap. Dem. pp. 160, 161 ; Dem. de Chers. p. 105.) [E. E.] CERVA'RIUS PRO'CULUS. [proculus.] CERVI'DIUS SCAE'VOLA. [scaevola.] CERYX (K?7pu£), an Attic hero, a son of Hermes and Aglauros, from whom the priestly familv of the Ceryces at Athens derived their origin. (Paus. i. 38, § 3.) [L. S.] CESE'LLIUS BASSUS. [bassus, p. 472, b.] CESTIA'NUS, a surname which occurs on se­ veral coins of the Plaetoria gens, but is not men­ tioned in any ancient writer. [plaetorius.]

CESTIUS. 1. Cicero mentions three persons of this name, who perhaps are all the same : one in the oration for Flaccus, b. c. 59 (c. 13), another (C. Cestius) in a letter to Atticus, b. c. 51 (ad Alt. v. 13), and a third (C. Cestius) as praetor in b. c. 44, who, he says, refused a province from Antony. (Phil. iii. 10.) As the last belonged to the aris-tocratical party, it is probable that he is the same Cestius who perished in the proscription, B. c. 43. (Appian, B. C. iv. 26.)

2. cestius, surnamed macedonicus, on ac­count of his having formerly served in Macedonia, was a native of Perusia. When this town was taken by Augustus in b. c. 41, he set fire to his house, which occasioned the conflagration of the whole city, and then stabbed himself and leaped into the flames. (Appian, B. C. v. 49 j Veil. Pat. ii. 74.)

3. cestiuvs gallus. [gallus.]

4. cestius proculus, accused of repetundae, but acquitted, A. d. 56. (Tac. Ann. xiii. 30.)

5. cestius severus, an infamous informer under Nero. (Tac. Hist. iv. 41.)

The name Cestius is chiefly remarkable on ac­count of its connexion with two monuments at Rome, the Pons Cestius and the Pyramid of Ces­tius, both of which are still remaining. This bridge, which connects the island of the Tiber with the Janiculum, is supposed by some writers to have been built by the consul C. Cestius Gallus, in the reign of Tiberius ; but as it seems improbable that a private person would ,have been allowed to give his name to a public work under the empire, its erection is generally referred to the time of the republic. The Pyramid of Cestius, which was

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