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CEPHISODOTUS.

as an historian. It is possible that he may be the same person. If so, we must suppose that Cephi- sodorus was a native of Thebes, and settled at Athens as a jueroi/cos: but this is mere conjec­ ture. [P. S.]

CEPHISODORUS, an illustrious painter men­ tioned by Pliny (xxxv. 9. s. 36. § 1), together with Aglaophon, Phrylus, and Evenor, the father of Parrhasius, under the 90th Olympiad (b, c. 420), at which date, the end of the Archidamian war, Pliny's authorities made a stop and enumerated the distinguished men of the age. (Heyne, Antiq. Aufs'dtze, i. p. 220.) At least, this reason for the date of Pliny seems more probable than the vic­ tories of Alcibiades in the Olympian and other games which were celebrated by Aglaophon. (aglaophon ; and Bb'ttiger, Arclidologie der Malerei, p. 269.) [L. U.]

CEPHISODOTUS (K^to-o^oros). 1. One of the three additional generals who, in b. c. 405, were joined by the Athenians in command with Conon, Adeimantus, and Philocles. He was taken prisoner at the battle of Aegospotami, and put to death. (Xen. Hell. ii. 1. §§ 16, 30, &c.)

2. An Athenian general and orator, who was sent with Callias, Autocles, and others (b. c. 371) to ne­gotiate peace with Sparta. (Xen. Hell. vi« 3. $ 2.) Again, in b. c. 369, when the Spartan ambassadors had come to Athens to settle the terms of the desired alliance between the states, and the Athe­nian council had proposed that the land-forces of the confederacy should be under the command of Sparta, and the navy under that of Athens, Cephi-sodotus persuaded the assembly to reject the pro­posal, on the ground that, while Athenian citizens would have to serve under Spartan generals, few but Helots (who principally manned the ships) would be subject to Athenian control. Another arrangement was then adopted, by which the com­mand of the entire force was to be held by each state alternately for five days. (Xen. Hell. vii. 1. §§ 12—14.) It seems to have been about b. c. 359 that he was sent out with a squadron to the Hellespont, where the Athenians hoped that the Euboean adventurer, Charidemus, the friend of Cephisodotus, would, according to his promise made through the latter, co-operate with him in re-annexing the Chersonesus to their dominion. But Charidemus turned his arms against them, and marched in particular to the relief of Alopecon-nesus, a town on the south-east of the Chersonese, of which Cephisodotus had been ordered to make himself master under the pretext of dislodging a band of pirates who had taken refuge there. Un­able to cope with Charidemus, he entered into a compromise by which the place was indeed yielded to Athens, but on terms so disadvantageous that he was recalled from his command and brought to trial for his life. By a majority of only three votes he escaped sentence of death, but was condemned to a fine of five talents. (Dem. c. Aristocr. pp. 670—676 ; Suid. s. v. K^afooTos.) This was perhaps the Cephisodotus who, in b. c. 355, joined Aristophon the Azenian and others in defending the law of Leptines against Demosthenes, and who is mentioned in the speech of the latter as inferior to none in eloquence. (Dem. c. Lept. p. 501, &c.; comp. Rulmk. Hist. Crit. Orat. Gr. p. 141.) Aris­totle speaks of him (Rket. iii. 10) as an opponent of Chares when the latter had to undergo his after the Olynthian war, b. c. 347. [E. E.]

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CEPHISODOTUS.

CEPHISODOTUS. 1. A celebrated Athe­nian sculptor, whose sister was the first wife of Phocion. (Pint. Plioc. 19.) Pie is assigned by Pliny (xxxiv. 8. s. 19. § 1) to the 102nd Olympiad (b. c. 372), an epoch chosen probably by his autho­rities because the general peace recommended by the Persian king was then adopted by all the Greek states except Thebes, which began to aspire to the first station in Greece. (Heyne, Antiq. Aufs. i. p. 208.) Cephisodotus belonged to that younger school of Attic artists, who had abandoned the stern and majestic beauty of Phidias and adopted a more animated and graceful style. It is difficult to dis­tinguish him from a younger Cephisodotus, whom Sillig (p. 144), without the slightest reason, con­siders to have been more celebrated. But some works are expressly ascribed to the elder, others are probably his, and all prove him to have been a worthy contemporary of Praxiteles. Most of his works which are known to us were occasioned by public events, or at least dedicated in temples. This was the case with a group which, in company with Xenophon of Athens, he executed in Pentelian marble for the temple of Zeus Soter at Megalopo­lis, consisting of a sitting statue of Zeus Soter, with Artemis Soteira on one side and the town of Megalopolis on the other. (Paus. viii. 30. § 5.) Now, as it is evident that the inhabitants of that town would erect a temple to the preserver of their new-built city immediately after its foundation, Cephisodotus most likely finished his work not long after 01. 102. 2. (b. c. 371.) It seems that at the same time, after the congress of Sparta, b.c. 371, he executed for the Athenians a statue of Peace, holding Plutus the god of riches in her arms. (Paus. i. 8. § 2, ix. 16. § 2.) We ascribe this work to the elder Cephisodotus, al­though a statue of Enyo is mentioned as a work of Praxiteles' sons, because after 01. 120 we know of no peace which the Athenians might boast of, and because in the latter passage Pausanias speaks of the plan of Cephisodotus as equally good with the work of his contemporary and companion Xenophon, which in the younger Cephisodotus would have been only an . imitation. The most numerous group of his workmanship were the nine Muses on mount Helicon, and three of another group there, completed by Strongylion and Olym-piosthenes. (Paus. ix. 30. § 1.) They were pro­bably the works of the elder artist, because Strongylion seems to have been a contemporary of Praxiteles, not of his sons. (Comp. Sillig. p. 432.)

Pliny mentions two other statues of Cephiso­dotus (xxxiv. 8. s. 19. § 27), one a Mercury nursing the infant Bacchus, that is to say, holding him in his arms in order to entrust him to the care of the Nymphs, a subject also known by Praxiteles' statue (Paus. ix. 39. § 3), and by some basso-relievos, and an unknown orator lifting his hand, which attitude of Hermes Logeos was adopted by his successors, for instance in the celebrated statue of Cleomenes in the Louvre, and in a colossus at Vienna. (Meyer's Note to Winckelmann, vii. 2, 26.) It is probable that the admirable statue of Athena and the altar of Zeus Soter in the Peiraeeus (Plin. xxxiv. 8. s. 19. § 14)—perhaps the same which Demosthenes decorated after his return from exile, b. c. 323 (Pint. Dem. c. 27, Vit. X Orat. p. 846, d.)—were likewise his works, because they must have been erected soon after the restoration of the Peiraeeus by Conon, b. c. 393.

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