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1)V abrogating the acts of the dictator, and when, the following spring, Lepidus marched against the city at the head of the remnants of the Marian faction, he was defeated by Catulus in the battle of the Milvian bridge, and forced to take refuge in Sardinia, where he soon after perished in an attempt to organize an insurrection. [lepidus.] Catulus, although true to his party and his principles, denounced the corrupt practices which disgraced the senate while they possessed the exclusive right to act as judices on criminal trials ; his opinion upon this subject was most unequivocally expressed when Pompeius brought forward his measure (b. c. 70) for restoring the privileges of the tribunes, and his presence as a judex upon the impeachment of Verres was probably one of the circumstances which deprived the culprit of all hope. He came forward as an opponent of the Gabinian and Manilian laws (b. c. 67 and 66), and Cicero records the tribute paid by the populace, on the latter occasion, to his character and talents; for when, in the course of an argument against the extravagant powers which the contemplated enactment proposed to bestow upon a single individual, Catulus asked the multitude to whom they would look should any misfortune befal their favourite, the crowd, almost with one voice, shouted back the reply, that they would look to himself. When censor along with Crassus in 65, he withstood the measures of his colleague, who desired to make Egypt tributary to Rome, and so firm was each in maintaining his position, that at length both resigned without effecting anything. During the progress of the Catilinarian plot (b. c. 63), he strenuously supported Cicero, and either he or Cato was the first to hail him as " parens patriae." If we are to believe Sallust, Catulus used every effort to prevail upon Cicero to insert the name of Caesar among the conspirators, stimulated, it is said, by a recent grudge; for, when candidate for the office of chief pontiff, he had been defeated by Caesar. That a bad feeling existed between them is clear, for the first act of Caesar when he became praetor, on the first of January, 62, was an attempt to deprive his former rival of the office of commissioner for the restoration of the Capitol, which had been destroyed by fire during the civil war (83), an appointment held by him ever since the death of Sulla. But the optimates who were escorting the new consuls, upon hearing of the attempt, rushed in a body to the forum and by their united efforts threw out the bill. Thus the name of Catulus became connected with the Capitol and remained inscribed on the temple until it was again consumed in the reign of Vitellius.
Catulus died during the consulship of Metellus Celer, jb. c. 60, happy, says Cicero, both in the splendour of his life and in having been spared the spectacle of his country's ruin. He was not considered an orator, but at the same time possessed the power of expressing his opinions with learning, grace, and wisdom. (Orelli, Onom. Tull. ii. p. 367, &c.; Sail. Gatil. 35, 49, Frag. Histor. i. iii.; Tacit. Hist. iii. 72; Sueton. Jul. 15, Gall). 2; Val. Max. vi. 9. § 5; Plut. Crass. 13, Cat. Min. 16 ; Senec. Epist. 97 ; Dion Cass. xxxvi. 13, calls him princeps senatus, to. re irpwra tyjs ^ov\ijs r[v, at the time of the Gabinian law. See also xxxvii. 37, 46, xlv. 2; Orelli, Inscrip. n. 31.) [W. R.]
CATUS, a word indicating shrewdness, caution, sagacity, or the like, was a surname of Sex. Aelius
CATUS DECIANUS, procurator of Britain when the people rose against the Romans in A. d. 62 under Boadicea, was by his extortion and avarice one of the chief causes of the revolt. The Britons commenced the war by laying siege to Camalodunum, and as Suetonius Paullinus, the legate of the province, was absent upon an expedition against the island of Mona, the colonists applied to Catus for assistance, who was, however, able to send them only 200 men. After the fall of Camalodunum and the defeat of Petilius Cere-alis, Catus fled in alarm to Gaul. He was succeeded in his office of procurator by Julius Glas-sicianus. (Tac. Ann. xiv. 32, 38; Dion Cass. Ixii. 2; comp. boadicea.)
CATUS, FI'RMIUS, a senator, was the accuser of Scribonius Libo Drusus in A. d. 16. A few years afterwards (a. d. 24), Catus was condemned by the senate to be banished to an island, on account of a false accusation of majestas which he brought against his sister; but in consequence of his former service in the accusation of Drusus, Tiberius remitted his banishment, but allowed him to be expelled from the senate. (Tac. Ann. ii. 27, iv. 31.)
CAVARINUS, a Senonian, whom Caesar made king of his people, was expelled by his subjects and compelled to fly to Caesar, b. c. 54. He afterwards accompanied Caesar in his war against Ambiorix. (Caes. B. G. v. 54, vi. 5.)
CAVARUS (Kavapos), the last king of that portion of the Gauls which settled in Thrace and for many years exacted an annual tribute from Byzantium. It was chiefly by his mediation that Prusias 1. and the Rhodians were induced to make peace with Byzantium in b. c. 219. He was ulti mately slain in battle against the Thracians, who defeated and utterly destroyed all the Gauls in their country. (Polyb. iv. 46, 52.) Polybius calls him " a royal-hearted and magnanimous man" (/3a<nAtKos rfj (pvffei ical jU.g'yaA.oefrpwi'), and says that he gave great protection to merchants sailing to the Euxine; he adds, however, that he was spoilt by the flattery of Sostratus of Chalcedon. (Polyb. viii. 24, and ap. Aihen. vi. p. 252, d.) " Cavarus" was perhaps rather a national name than one peculiar to the individual, the Cavari having been a tribe of some consequence which dwelt on the eastern bank of the Rhone, between Avignon and Valence. (Strab. iv. p. 186 ; Dale- champ, ad Alhen, I. c.) [E. E,]
CAUCALUS (Kau'/mAos), of Chios, a rhetori cian, of whom an eulogium on Heracles is men tioned by Athenaeus (x. p. 412), who also states that he was a brother of the historian Theopompus. It is very probable, that Suidas and Photius (s. v. h.rilj,viov ko.kov) refer to our rhetorician, in which case the name kchjkcktos must be changed into KavKa\os. [L. S.j
CAUCON (KarJ/cwv), a son of Celaenus, who was believed to have carried the orgies of the great god dess from Eleusis to Messene, where he was worship ped as a hero. His tornb was shewn in Lepreos. (Paus. iv. 1. § 4, 27. § 4, v. 5. § 4.) One of the sons of Lycaon also bore the name of Caucon. (Apollod. iii. 8. § 1.) [L. S.]
CAUDINUS, a surname of several of the Cornelii Lentuli. [lbntulus.]