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On this page: Capusa – Capys – Capys Silvius – Car – Caracalla

CARACALLA.

worshipped on the Caelian hill at Rome. Its origin was not known. Ovid (Fast. iii. 837, &c.) proposes various conjectures about it. [L. S.]

CAPUSA, the son of Oesalces, who was the uncle of Masinissa. While the latter was in Spain fighting on behalf of the Carthaginians, his father Gala died, and was succeeded in the so­vereignty by his brother Oesalces. Oesalces also dying shortly afterwards, his son Capusa ob­tained the throne; but as he had not much influ­ence among his people, one Mezetulus laid claim to the kingdom, and defeated and killed Capusa in battle. (Liv. xxix. 29.)

CAPYS (Kdirvs). 1. A son of Assaracus and Hieromnemone, and father of Anchises. (Apollod. iii. 12. § 2 ; Horn. II. xx. 239; Virg. Aen. vi. 768; Diod. iv. 75.)

2. One of the companions of Aeneas, from whom the town of Capua was said to have derived its name. (Virg. Aen. x. 145.) This Capys was a Trojan, and is mentioned by Virgil among those

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CARACALLA.

who were of opinion that the wooden horse should be thrown into the water. {Aen. ii. 35.) Livy (iv. 37) states, that according to some traditions the town of Capua, which was previously called Vulturnum, derived its name from a Samnite chief of the name of Capys. [L. S.]

CAPYS SILVIUS. [SiLvius.]

CAR (Kap), a son of Phoroneus, and king of Megara, from whom the acropolis of this town de­ rived its name Caria. (Paus. i. 39. § 4, 40. § 5.) His tomb was shewn as late as the time of Pausa- nias, on the road from Megara to Corinth, (i. 44. § 9.) Another mythical personage of the name of Car, who was a brother of Lydus and Mysus, and was regarded as the ancestral hero of the Carians, is mentioned by Herodotus, (i. 171.) [L. S.]

CARACALLA or CARACALLUS. The genealogy of this emperor and of many other his­torical personages will be readily understood from the following table. An account of each individual is given in its proper alphabetical place.

Bassianus.

I

r

Julia Domna Augusta, second wife of L. Septimius Severus Augustus.

Julia MaeBa Augusta, wife of Julius Avitus.

M. Aurelius Antoninus

Augustus, commonly called caiiacalla.

L.(vel. P.) Septi­mius Geta Au­gustus.

Julia Soemias Au­gusta, wife of Sex. Varius Marcellus.

Julia Mamaea Augusta,

wifeofGessiusMar-cianus.

M. Aurelius Antoninus Augustus, commonly called Elagabalus.

M. Aurelius Severus Alexander Augus­tus.

Caracalla or Caracallus, son of Septimius Seve­rus and his second wife Julia Domna, was born at Lyons on the 4th or 6th of April, a. d. 188. while his father was governor of Gallia Lugdu-nensis. The child was originally called Bas­sianus after his maternal grandfather, but when Severus thought fit to declare himself the adopted offspring of M. Aurelius, he at the same time changed the name of his boy to M. Aurelius Anto-ninus, a designation retained by him ever after. Caracalla or Caracallus^ which never appears on medals or inscriptions, was a nickname derived from a long tunic or great coat with a hood, worn by the Gauls, which he adopted as his favourite dress after he became emperor, and introduced into the army. These vestments found great favour, especially among the lower orders, and were known as Antoninianae Caracallae.

Young Bassianus is said to have been remark­able in early life for a gentle and pleasing address. At this period he was beloved alike by his parents and the people, and displayed no indication of that ferocious temper which subsequently rendered him the scourge of the world. At the age of eight (196) he received the title of Caesar and Princeps Juven-tutis, in Maesia, while his father was marching from the East to encounter Albinus, and the year following (197) he was admitted an extraordinary member of the pontifical college. After the over­throw of Aibinus, we find him styled Destinatus Imperator; and in 198, when ten years old, he was invested with the tribunician power, and cre­ated Augustus. Pie accompanied Severus in the expedition against the Parthians, sharing his victo-

ries and honours, put on the manly gown at An-tioch in 201, entered upon his first consulship in 202, and, returning through Egypt to Rome, was married in the course of a few months to Plautilla, daughter of Plautianus, the praetorian praefect. The political events from this date until the death of Severus, which took place at York, on the 4th of February, A. d. 211, are given in the life of that prince, whose acuteness and worldly knowledge were so conspicuous, that he could not, under any circumstances, have failed to fathom the real cha­racter of his son, who assuredly was little of a hy­pocrite. But, although the youth was known to have tampered with the troops, and once, it is said, was detected in an open attempt to assassinate his father, no punishment was inflicted, and parental fondness prevented the feeble old man from taking any steps which might save the empire from being cursed with such a ruler. Geta, however, was named joint heir of the throne, having been pre­viously elevated to the rank of consul and dignified with the appellations of Caesar and Augustus.

The great object of Caracalla was now the de­struction of this colleague, towards whom he enter­tained the most deadly hatred. Having failed in persuading the army to set aside the claims of his rival, he, on various occasions, sought his life se­cretly while they were journeying from Britain to Rome with the ashes of their father; but these treacherous schemes were all frustrated by the vi­gilance of Geta, who was well aware of his danger, and fear of the soldiery prevented open violence. I A pretended reconciliation now took place: they ; entered the city together, together bestowed a do-

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