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these Antoninus Pius and L. Verus are inscribed to Diocletian, who is also addressed in M. Au-relius (c. 19); Pertinax and Maximus with Balbi-nus bear no inscription; the rest are inscribed to Constantine. Salmasius, following the authority of the Palatine MSS., assigns the first five to Spartianus, and acknowledges the sixth, seventh, and 8th only, as the genuine productions of Capitolimis ; but these are points on which it is foolish, in the absence of all'satisfactory evidence, internal or external, to hazard even an opinion.
The editio princeps of the Historiae Augustae Scriptores was printed at Milan in 1475 by Philip de Lavagna, in a folio volume divided into three parts, of which the first contains Suetonius; the second a piece entitled de exordia Nervae, followed by the Augustan Historians; the third Eutropius and Paulus Diaconus. It is excessively rare, and bears a high price. It was reprinted at Venice by Bernardinus, fol. 1489, and by Rubeus, fol. 1490. These lives are also to be found in various miscellanies containing the history of the Caesars which appeared during the 16th century ; but they were first brought out in an independent form at Paris, 4to. 1603, under the inspection of Isaac Casaubon; this was followed by the edition of Salmasius, fol. Par. 1620, which exhibits a text greatly improved by a careful examination of MSS. and copious notes containing a prodigious but ill-digested mass of erudition. The most useful edition is that by Schrevelius (Lugd. Bat. 1671); but much remains to be done, for palpable corruptions appear in every page.
(Dodwell, Praelect. Academ. 8vo, Oxford, 1692; Heyne, Opusc. Academ. vol. vi. p. 52, &c.; Gu. de Moulines, Memoires sur les Ecrivains de VHistoire Auc/uste, in Memoires de VAcademie de Berlin^ 1750; Godofred. Muscovius, Oratio de Usu et Praestantia Hist. August, in Jure Civili, in his Opuse. Juridica ct Philolog. 8vo. Lips. 1776; H. E. Dirksen, Die Script. Histor. August. 8vo. Lips. 1842.) [W. R.j
CAPITOLINUS, P. MAE'LIUS, twice con sular tribune, in b. c. 400 and 396. (Liv. v. 12, 18.) [L. S.]
3. A. manlius a. f. cn. n. capitolinus vul-so, thrice consular tribune, in b. c. 405, 402, and 397. In b. c. 390 he was one of the ambassadors whom the senate sent to Delphi, to dedicate there the golden crater which Camillus had vowed. In the straits of Sicily the ambassadors fell in with pirates of Lipara and were made prisoners, but they were restored to freedom and treated with distinction at Lipara, when it became known who they were. (Liv. iv. 61, v. 8, 16, 28.)
4. M. manlius T. f. A. n. capitolinus, the famous deliverer of the Capitol from the Gauls, was consul in b. c. 392 with L. Valerius Potitus. An insignificant war was carried on in that year against the Aequians, for which Manlius was honoured with an ovation, and his colleague with a triumph. Rome was visited at the time by a pestilence, and as the two consuls were seized with it, they were obliged to abdicate, and an interreign followed. In b. c. 390, when the Gauls one night endeavoured to ascend the Capitol, Manlius, whose residence was on the Capitol, was roused from his
sleep by the cackling of the geese, and on discovering the cause of it, he and as many men as he could collect at the moment hastened to the spot where the Gauls were ascending, and succeeded in repelling them. This gallant and successful deed was rewarded the next day by the assembled people with all the simple and rude honours and distinctions which were customary at the time. He is said to have received the surname of Capitolinus from this circumstance ; but this is probably a mistake, as it had become a regular family-name in his gens before his time, and he would thus have inherited it from his father. In B. c. 387 he was appointed interrex, but two years later, b. c. 385, he abandoned the cause of the patricians, to whom he belonged, and placed himself at the head of the plebeians, who were suffering severely from their debts and the harsh and cruel treatment they experienced from their patrician creditors. The motive, however, from which Manlius came forward to support them was not pure; it appears that after his delivery of the Capitol he was so intoxicated with his exploit, that he could not bear seeing any man placed on an equality with or raised above himself, and it is even believed that he harboured the scheme of making himself tyrant or kin<? of Rome. With such or similar intentions
he excited the plebeians against their oppressors, who became so alarmed that they resolved upon the appointment of a dictator, A. Cornelius Cossus. While the dictator was absent from Rome, Manlius had recourse to violence to rescue the plebeians from the hands of their creditors, and conducted himself altogether like a complete demagogue. When the dictator returned to the city in order to put a stop to the proceedings of Manlius, he summoned Manlius to appear before him. The rebel came accompanied by a host of plebeians ; but the dictator had him arrested by one of his viators and consigned to prison as a seditious citizen. The plebeians, though they did not venture anything against the orders of the dictator, displayed their grief by putting on mourning for their champion, and gathering around his prison. The attempts of the senate to allay the indignation of the plebeians by assignments of land, only irritated them the more, as they regarded these favours as bribes to betray their patron, and the insurrection rose to such a height, that the senate and patricians saw themselves obliged to liberate Manlius. By this step, however, nothing was gained ; the plebeians now had a leader, and the insurrection instead of decreasing spread further and further. In the year following, B. c. 384, the Romans had not to fight against any foreign enemy, and as Manlius did not scruple to instigate the plebs to open violence, the consular tribunes of the year received orders, viderent ne quid res publica detriments ca-peret. Manlius was charged with high-treason, and brought before the people assembled in the campus Martius, but as the Capitol which had once been saved by him could be seen from this place, the court was removed to the Poetelinian grove outside the porta Nomentana. Here Manlius was condemned, notwithstanding his former military glory and his appeals to the gratitude of the people, and the tribunes threw him down the Tarpeian. rock. The members of the Manlia gens considered that he had brought disgrace upon them, and accordingly resolved that none of them should ever have in future the praenomen of Marcus. (Liv. y,