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On this page: Candaules – Candidus – Candidus Isaurus – Candybus – Canidia – Caninia Gens



that she was Mind of one eye. (Strab. xvii. pp. 819—821; Dion Cass. liii. 29, liv. 5.) Her name seems to have been common to all the queens of Aethiopia (Plin. H. N. vi. 29 ; Joseph. Ant. viii. 6. § 5; Acts, viii. 27) ; and it appears from Eusebius (Hist. Eccl. ii. 1. § 10), that it was cus­ tomary for the Aethiopians to be governed by women, though Oecumenius thinks (Comm. in Acts, I. c.\ that Candace was only the common name of the queen-mothers, the nation regarding the sun alone as their father and king, and their princes as the sun's children. [E. E.]

CANDAULES (Kai/SarfAT/s), known also among the Greeks by the name of Myrsilus, was the last Heracleid king of Lydia. According, to the account in Herodotus and Justin, he was ex­tremely proud of his wife's beauty, and insisted on exhibiting her unveiled charms, but without her knowledge, to Gyges, his favourite officer. Gyges was seen by the queen as he was stealing from her chamber, and the next day she summoned him before her, intent on vengeance, and bade him choose whether he would undergo the punishment of death himself, or would consent to murder Can-daules and receive the kingdom together with her hand. He chose the latter alternative, and be­came the founder of the dynasty of the Mermna-dae, about b. c. 715. In Plato the story, in the form of the well-known fable of the ring of Gyges, serves the purpose of moral allegory. Plutarch, following in one place the story of Herodotus, speaks in another of Gyges as making war against Candaules with the help of some Carian auxilia­ries. (Herod, i. 7—13; Just. i. 7; Plat, de Repub. ii. pp. 359, 360; Cic. de Of. iii. 9; Plut. Quaest. Grace. 45, Sympos. i. 5. § 1; comp. Thirl-wall's Greece, vol. ii. p. 158.) Candaules is men­tioned by Pliny in two passages as having given Bularchus, the painter, a large sum of money (" pari rependit auro ") for a picture representing a battle of the Magnetes. (Plin. H. N. vii. 38, xxxv. 8 ; comp. Diet, of Ant. p. 682.) [E. E.]

CANDIDUS (KefoSiSos), a Greek author, who lived about the time of the emperors Commodus and Severus, about a. d. 200, and wrote a work on the Hexameron, which is referred to by Eusebius. (Hist. Eccl. v. 27 ; comp. Hieronym. De Scriptor. Eccl 48.) [L. S.]

CANDIDUS, an Arian who flourished about the middle of the fourth century, the author of a tract " De Generatione Divina," addressed to his friend Marius Victorinus, who wrote in reply "De Generatione Verbi Divini sive Confutatorium Can-didi Ariani ad eundem." Mabillon published in his Analecta (Paris, 1685, fol.) a " Fragmentum Epistolae Candidi Ariani ad Marium Victorinum," which Oudin first pointed out to be in reality a portion of the " De Generatione Divina." Both are printed in the Bibliotheca Patrum of Galland, vol. viii. [victorinus,] (Oudin, De Script. Eccl. vol. i. p. 528; Schonemann, Bill. Patrum Latino-ruin, c. iv. 13 and 14, Lips. 1792.) [W.R.]

CANDIDUS ISAURUS (KdMos "Io-avpos), a Byzantine historian, a native of Isauria, whence his surname Isaurus. He lived in the reign of the emperor Anastasius, and held a high public office in his native country. He is called a man of great influence and an orthodox Christian, which is in­ferred from his advocating the decrees of the coun­cil of Chalcedon. His history of the Byzantine empire, in three books, which is now lost, began


with the election of the emperor Leo the Thracian, and came doAvn to the death of Zeno the I saurian. It therefore embraced the period from A. d. 457 to 491. A summary of its contents is preserved in Photius (cod. 79), to whom we are also indebted for the few facts concerning the life of Candidiis which we have mentioned, and who censures the style of the historian for its affectation of poetical beauties. A small fragment of the work is pre­ served by Suidas (s. v. xetpf'£a>). The extant frag­ ments of Candidus are printed in the appendix to " Eclogae Historicorum de Reb. Byz.," ed. Labbe, which forms an appendix to " Excerpta de Lega- tionibus, &c." ed. D. Hoeschelius, published by C. A. Fabrotus, Paris, 1648. They are also contained in the edition of Dexippus, Eunapius, &c. published in the Bonn collection of Byzantine writers. (Comp. Hanke, Byz. Rer. Script, ii. 3, p. 672, &c.; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vii. p. 543.) [L. S.]

CANDIDUS, VESPRO'NIUS, one of the consular envoys despatched by Didius Julianas and the senate in A. d. 192, for the purpose of in­ ducing the troops of Septimius Severus to abandon their leader, who had been declared a public ene­ my. Not only did Candidus fail in accomplishing the object of his mission, but he very narrowly escaped being put to death by the soldiers, who re­ collected the harshness he had formerly displayed towards those under his command. We find him, nevertheless, at a subsequent period (193) employ­ ed as a legate by Severus, first in Asia Minor, against Pescennius Niger, and afterwards (194) against the Arabians and other barbarous tribes on the confines of Syria and Mesopotamia. On both occasions he did good service ; for, by his exhorta­ tions and example, the fortune of the day was turned at the great battle of Nicaea; and, acting in conjunction with Lateranus, he reduced to sub­ mission the turbulent chiefs of Adiabene and Os- roene. (Dion Cass. Ixxiii. 16, Ixxiv. 6, Ixxv. 2; Spartian. Julian. 5.) [W. R.]

CANDYBUS (KrfvSugos), a son of Deucalion, from whom Candyba, a town in Lycia, was believed to have received its name. (Steph. Byz. s.v.} [L.S.] CANE'THUS (Kdvn6os), two mythical person­ ages, one a son of Lycaon, and the second the son of Atlas and father of Canthus in Euboea, from whom a mountain in Euboea near Chalcis derived its name, (Apollod. iii. 8. § 1; Apollon. Rhod. i. 78 ; Strab. x. p. 447.) [L. S.]

CANIDIA, whose real name was Gratidia, as we learn from the scholiasts, was a Neapolitan hetaira beloved by Horace ; but when she deserted him, he revenged himself upon her by holding her np to contempt as an old sorceress. This was the object of the 5th and 17th Epodes, and of the 8th Satire of the first book. The Palinodia in the 16th ode of the 1st book is supposed to refer to these poeins. Horace attacks her by the name of Canidia because her real name Gratidia conveyed the idea of what was pleasing and agreeable, while the assumed one was associated with gray hairs and old age. (Comp. Hor. Sat. ii. 1. 48 ; Schol. Acr. and Cruqu. ad loc. and ad Sat. i. 8. 24.)

P. CANI'DIUS CRASSUS. [crassus.] CANI'NA, C. CLAU'DIUS, consul in b. c. 285 and 2>3. [claudius.]

CANINIA GENS, plebeian, is not mentioned in early Roman history. It came into notice at the beginning of the second century before Christ. C. Cammus Rebilus, praetor in b. c. 171, was the

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