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CAMILLUS.

stand, led them back to battle, and gained a com­plete victory. Hereupon Camillas received orders to make war upon the Tusculans for having assist­ed the Volscians ; and, notwithstanding the former conduct of Medullinus, Camillus again chose him as his colleague, to afford him an opportunity of wiping off his disgrace. This generosity and mo­deration deserved and excited general admiration.

In b. c. 368, when the patricians were resolved to make a last effort against the rogations of C. Licinius Stolo, the senate appointed Camillus, a faithful supporter of the patricians, dictator for the fourth time. His magister equitum was L. Aemi-lius Mamercinus. But Camillus, who probably saw that it was hopeless to resist any further the demands of the plebeians, resigned the office soon after, and P. Manlius was appointed in his stead. In the following year, b. c. 367, when a fresh war with the Gauls broke out, Camillus, who was now nearly eighty years old, was called to the dictator­ship for the fifth time. His magister equitum was T. Quinctius Pennus. He gained a great victory, for which he was rewarded with a triumph. Two years later, b. c. 365, he died of the plague. Ca­millus is the great hero of his time, and stands forth as a resolute champion of his own order until he became convinced that further opposition was of no avail. His history, as related in Plutarch and Livy, is not without a considerable admixture of legendary and traditional fable, and requires a careful critical sifting. (Pint. Life of CamillusLiv. v. 10, 12, 14, 17, 19, &c., 31, 32, 46, 49-55, vi. 1-4, 6, &c., 18, &c., 22, &c., 38, 42, vii. 1 ; Diod. xiv. 93; Eutrop. i. 20; Val. Max. iv. 1. § 2; Gellius, xvii. 21; Cic. pro Dom. 32, de Re Publ. i. 3. Tuscul. i. 37, Fragm. p. 462 ; Ascon. pro Scaur. p! 30, ed. Orelli.)

2. sp. furios camillus, a son of No. 1. When the praetorship was instituted in b. c. 367, Camillus was one of the two who were first in­vested with it. (Liv. vii. 1; Suid. s. v. ITpamop.)

3. L. furius M. f. camillus, a son of No. 1. In b. c. 350, when one of the consuls was ill, and the other, Popillius Laenas, returned from the Gal­lic war with a severe wound, L. Furius Camillus was appointed dictator to hold the comitia, and P. Cornelius Scipio became his magister equitum. Camillus, who was as much a patrician in his feel­ings and sentiments as his father, did not accept the names of any plebeians who offered themselves as candidates for the consulship, and thus caused the consulship to be given to patricians only. The senate, delighted with this, exerted all its influence in raising him to the consulship in b. c. 349. He then nominated Appius Claudius Crassus as his colleague, who however died during the prepara­tions "for the Gallic war. Camillus, who now re­mained sole consul, caused the command against the Gauls to be given to himself extra sortem. Two legions were left behind for the protection of the city, and eight others were divided between him and the praetor L. Pinarius, whom he sent to protect the coast against some Greek pirates, who in that year infested the coast of Latium. Camillus routed the Gauls in the Pomptine dis­trict, and compelled them to seek refuge in Apu-lia. This battle against the Gauls is famous in Roman story for the single combat of M. Vale­rius Corvus with a bold and presumptuous Gaul. After the battle, Camillus honoured the gallantry of Valerius with a present of ten oxen aud a golden

CAMISSARES.

crown. Camillus then joined the praetor Pinarius on the coast; but nothing of any importance was accomplished against the Greeks, who soon after disappeared. (Liv. vii. 24-26 ; Cic. De Senect. 12 ; Gell. ix. 11.)

4. L. furius sp. f. M. n. camillus, son of No. 2, consul in b. c. 338, together with C. Maenius. He fought in this year successfully against the Ti-burtines, and took their town Tibur. The two con­suls united completed the subjugation of Latium; they were rewarded with a triumph, and eques­trian statues, then a rare distinction, were erected to them in the forum. Camillus further distin­guished himself by advising his countrymen to treat the Latins with mildness. In B. c. 325 he was elected consul a second time, together with D. Junius Brutus Scaeva. In this year war was declared against the Vestinians, and Camillus ob­tained Sammum for his province; but while he was engaged in the war, he was attacked by a se­vere illness, and was ordered to nominate L. Papirius Cursor dictator to continue the war. (Liv. viii. 13, 16, &c., 29 ; Plin. //. N. xxxiii. 5.)

5. M. furius camillus, consul in a.d. 8 (Fast Cap.), and proconsul of Africa in the reign of Tibe­rius, defeated in a. d. 17, the Numidian Tacfarinas, together with a great number of Nitmidians and Mauretanians. It is expressly stated, that after the lapse of several centuries, he was the first who revived the military fame of the Furii Camilli. The senate, with the consent of Tiberius, honoured him with the insignia of a triumph, a distinction which he was allowed to enjoy with impunity on account of his unassuming character. (Tac. Ann. ii. 52, iii. 20.)

6. M. furius camillus, surnamed scriboni-anus, was consul in the reign of Tiberius, A. d. 32, together with Cn. Domitius. At the begin­ning of the reign of Claudius he was legate of Dalmatia, and revolted with his legions, probably in the hope of raising himself to the throne. But he was conquered on the fifth day after the begin­ning of the insurrection, A. D. 42, sent into exile and died in a. d. 53, either of an illness, or, as was commonly reported, by poison. (Tac. Ann. vi. 1, xii. 52, Hist. i. 89, ii. 75 ; Suet. Claud. 13.)

7. furius camillus, likewise surnamed ScRf- bonianus, was sent into exile by the emperor Claudius, together with his mother Junia, a. d. 53, for having consulted the Chaldaeans about the time when Claudius was to die. (Tac. Ann. xii. 52, Hist. ii. 75.) [L. S.]

C. CAMILLUS, a Roman jurist, and a parti­cular friend of Cicero, who had a high opinion of his worldly prudence and judgment, and often consulted him on matters of business and law. At Cicero's table he was a frequent guest, and waa remarkable for his love of news, and extreme per­sonal neatness. His name often occurs in the letters of Cicero (ad Att. v. 8, vi. 1, 5, xi. 16, 23, xiii. 6, 33, ad Fain. ix. 20, xiv. 5, 14), from one of which (ad Fam. v. 20) it appears, that Camillus was consulted by Cicero upon a matter connected with the jus praediatorium, which was a branch of the revenue law of Rome, and was so difficult and intricate that some jurists specially devoted them­selves to its study. (Diet, of Ant. s.v. P'raes.)[J.T.G.]

CAMISSARES, a Carian, father of Datames, was high in favour with Artaxerxes II.(Mnemon), by whom he was made satrap of a part of Cilicia bordering on Cappadocia. He fell in the war of

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