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place. But when afterwards Joannes Palaeologus had gained possession of the imperial throne, Callistus was restored to the patriarchal see. The year after his restoration he was sent as ambas sador to the Servian princess Elizabeth to conclude a peace, and during this embassy he died near Pherae, the capital of the Servians. There is a Greek homily on the exaltation of the cross by one Callistus, which is printed with a Latin translation in Gretser (De Cruce, ii. p. 1347), but whether it is the work of our Callistus, or of another who was patriarch of Constantinople in A. d. 1406, is un certain. There are some other works of a theolo gical nature which are ascribed to one Callistus, but they have never been printed. (Wharton's Appendix to Cave, Hist. Lit. i. p. 46, &c,, ed. London.) [L. S.]
CALLISTUS, C. JU'LIUS, a freedman of Caligula, in whose reign he possessed very great influence and power, though in the end he was an accomplice in the conspiracy by which this em peror was murdered. In the reign of Claudius, Callistus continued to have great influence, and he endeavoured secretly, in conjunction with others, to counteract the attachment of Messalina to C. Silius; but Callistus was afraid of losing his posi tion, and gave up opposing the scheme of Messa lina. When she had been put to death, Callistus supported the designs of Lollia Paulina, who wished to become the emperor's wife ; but he did not succeed in this point, for Claudius married Agrippina, who was supported by Pallas. This Callistus is un doubtedly the person to whom the physician Scri- bonius Largus dedicates his work; and from it we learn that the full name of Callistus was C. Julius Callistus. (Tac. Ann. xi. 29, 38, xii. 1, &c.; Dion Cass. lix. 19 ; Senec. Epist. 47; Joseph. Ant.Jud. xix. 1. § 10.) [L. S.]
CALLIXENUS (KaAAt£er>os) was the mover in the Athenian jSouMf of the following decree against the generals who had conquered at Argi-nusae, b. c. 406,—a decree as false in its preamble as it was illegal and iniquitous in its substance : " Whereas the accusation against the generals, as well as their defence, has been heard in the previous assembly, belt enacted that all the Athenians give their votes on the case according to their tribes; and that for each tribe there be set two urns to receive the ballots of condemnation or acquittal. And if they be found guilty, let them suffer death ; and let their property be confiscated, and a tenth of it be set apart for the goddess." The decree, in fact, took away from the accused the right of separate trials and a fair hearing; and, when it was brought before the assembly, Eurypto-lemus and some other friends of the generals threatened Callixenus with a prosecution for his illegal proposition, but were compelled by the clamours of the multitude to drop their proceedings. The Prytanes then refused to put the motion to the vote ; but they too, with the single exception of Socrates (who was e-/n(rr<irf]s for that day) were obliged to give way .before the invectives of Callixenus and the threats of the people. (Xen. HclL i. 7. §§ 8—16, Memorab. i. 1. § 18 ; Plat. Apol. p. 32, b.; Pseudo-Plat. Axioch. p. 368, ad fin.) Nut long after the death of the generals the Athe-
nians decreed the institution of criminal accusations (•n-poboAaf, see Diet, of Ant. s. v.) against Cal- lixenus and the rest who had deceived them. He and four others accordingly were compelled to give bail for their appearance, and were kept in confine ment by their sureties. They contrived, however, to effect their escape, and took refuge with the Lacedaemonians at Deceleia. On the restoration of democracy at Athens, b. c. 403, Callixenus took advantage of the general amnesty to return : but the ban of his countrymen's hatred was upon him, —no man, it is said, would give him either water or light for his fire,—and he perished miserably of hunger. (Diod. xiii. 103 ; Xen. Hell. i. 7. § 35 ; Suid. s. v. 'Evaveiv; comp. Herod, vii. 231.) [E. E.] CALLI'XENUS (KaAA^os), of Rhodes, a contemporary of Ptolemy Philadelphus, was the author of two works, which are lost. The one which bore the title of Trepl 'AAe|aj/8peias, consisted of at least four books, and was much used by A the- naeus. (Athen. v. p. 196, &c., ix. p. 387, xi. pp. 472, 474, 483; Harpoerat. s. v. eyyvQ^KV).) The second work appears to have been a catalogue of painters and sculptors (^wypdtytav re icai dvdpiavru- iroiuv dvaypatyij), of which Sopater, in the twelfth book of his Eclogae had made an abridgement. (Phot. JBibl. Cod. 161 ; comp. Preller, Polem. Fragm. p. 178, &c.) [L. S.]
CALLO (KaAAw), an orphan who lived at Epi- daurus about thirty years after the death of Alex ander the Great, and was commonly considered to be a girl. She accordingly married, and lived with her husband for two years. After that time, she was taken seriously ill, and had to undergo an operation, the effect of which was that she became a man. She is one of the beings commonly called androgyne, and her case as described by Diodorus (xxxii. Eel. i. p. 522) must be of interest to medi cal men. [L. S.]
GALLON (KWA/W). 1. An artist of the island of Aegina, the pupil of Angelio and Tectaeus, who were themselves pupils of Dipoenus and Scyllis. (Paus. ii. 32. § 4.) As the latter two flourished b. c. 580, the age of Gallon must be fixed at b. c, 516. This is confirmed by the statement of Pau-sanias (vii. 18. § 6), that Gallon was a contemporary of Canachus, who we know flourished from b. c. 540 to 508. [canachus.] There are two passages in Pausanias which seem to contradict this conclusion ; but K. 0. Miiller (Aeginet. p. 100) and Thiersch (Epoch. Anm. p. 40) have clearly shewn that one of them is interpolated, and that the other, if explained properly, does not place Gallon either in the time of the Messenian wars, or as late as the battle of Aegospotamos, as some interpreters had believed. (Comp. Sillig, Cat. Art. s. v.) We are acquainted with two works of Gallon: the tripod ornamented by a statue of Cora and a xoa-non of Athene. Quintilian (xii. 10) calls his works " duriora atque Tuscanicis proxima."
2. A native of Elis, who sculptured a Hermes at Olympia (Paus. v. 27. § 5) and a chorus of thirty-five Messenian boys, together with their leader and the flute-player, who had all perished on the passage from Messana to Rhegium. The whole group was dedicated by the Messenians at Olympia. (Pans. v. 25. § 1.) Gallon must have lived before b.c. 436. (Thiersch, Epoch. Anm. p. 62.) [W.I.] CALOCY'RUS, proconsul (avetiraros) or dux Basilica, v. 487), a Graeco-Roman jurist. In Basil, vol. iv. p. 403 (Fabrot), he is called