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CALLISTRATUS,

Oropus by a body of Oropian exiles and the con­sequent loss of it to Athens, the Athenians, having sent an army against it under Chares, were in­duced by Chabrias and Callistratus to compromise the matter by delivering the place as a deposit to the Thebans pending the adjustment of their claims. The Thebans refused afterwards to sur­render it, and the consequence was the prosecution of the advisers of the compromise. At first the eloquence of Callistratus was successful, and they were acquitted; but the loss of so important a frontier town rankled in the minds of the people, and Callistratus appears to have been condemned to death in 361, and to have gone into banishment to Methone in Macedonia. In 356 (see Clinton on the year) he seems to have been still an exile, but he ultimately returned to Athens?—a step which the orator Lycurgus refers to as a striking instance of judicial infatuation,—and was put to death, though he had fled for refuge to the altar of the twelve gods. (Xen. Hell. vii. 4. § 1, &c.; Diod. xv. 76 ; Pint. Dem. 5 ; Hermipp. ap. Gelt. iii. 13; Pseudo-Pint. Vit. X Oral. p. 156, ed. Tauchn. ; Dem. c. Polycl. pp. 1221, 1222; Lycurg. c. Leocr. p. 159 ; Aristot. Rliet. i. 7. § 13.) During his exile he is said to have founded the city of Datum, afterwards Philippi, and doubtless he was the deviser of the plan for increasing the rent of the Macedonian harbour dues from 20 to 40 talents. (Isocr. de Pac. p. 164, a.; Pseudo-Aristot. Oecon. ii. 22; comp. Schneid. Epim. ad Xen. Hell vi. 2. § 39 ; Bockh, PuU. Econ. of Athens, bk. iii. ch. 4.) Demosthenes appears to have admired him greatly as an orator, and Theopompus praises him for his public conduct, while he censures the profli­gacy of his private life. (Dem. de Cor. p. 301, de Fals. Leg. p. 436 ; comp. Ruhnken, Hist. Grit. Or at. Graec. ap. JKeiske, vol. viii. p. 140; Aristot. Rliet. i. 14. § 1, iii. 17. § 13 ; Theopomp. ap. Athen. iv. p. 166, e.) The author of the lives of the X Orators (/. c.) strangely confounds the pre­sent Callistratus with the son of Empedus, in which mistake he has been followed by some modern writers : others again have erroneously identified him with the Callistratus who was Archon Epony-mus in 355. (See Ruhnken, I. c.; Clint. Fast. ii. pp. 126, 378 ; Bockh, PuU. Econ. bk. ii. ch. 14.)

4. An Elean, who came as an ambassador to Antiochus III. (the Great) at Chalcis, b. c. 192, to ask for aid to Elis against the Achaeans. The latter had declared for Rome, and decided on war with Antiochus, and the Eleans, friends to Antio­chus, feared in consequence the invasion of their territory. The king sent them, for their defence, a thousand men under the command of Euphanes the Cretan. (Polyb. xx. 3 ; Liv. xxxv. 48—50, xxxvi. 5.)

5. Private secretary to Mithridates. He fell into the hands of the Romans when his master decamped so hastily from his position on the plains of Cabeira, b, c. 72 ; and the soldiers, who were bringing him before Lucullus, murdered him when they discovered that he had a large sum of money about his person. (Pint. Lucull. 17 ; comp. App. Bell. Mitlir. p. 227.) [E. E.]

CALUSTRATUS, literary. 1. A Greek grammarian., and a disciple of Aristophanes of By­zantium, whence he is frequently surnamed 6 Apurrotpdveios, (Athen. i. p. 21, vi. p. 263.) He must have lived about the middle of the second century before Christ, and have been a contempo-

CALLISTRATUS.

rary of the famous Aristarchus. Pie appears to have devoted himself principally to the study of the great poets of Greece, such as Homer, Pindar, the tragedians, Aristophanes, and some others, and the results of his studies were deposited in. commentaries upon those poets, which are lost, but to which occasionally reference is made in our scholia. Tzetzes (Chit. xi. 61) states, that the grammarian Callistratus was the first who made the Samians acquainted with the alphabet of twenty-four letters, but this is in all probability a fiction. (Comp. Schol. ad Horn. II. vii. 185.) There are several more works mentioned by the ancients, which, it seems, must be attributed to our grammarian. Athenaeus (iii. p. 125) men­tions the seventh book of a work called ^ifyijuiKTa, and in another passage (xiii. p. 591), a work on courtezans (irepl eVcupcoi'), both of which belong probably to Callistratus the grammarian. Harpo-cration (s. v. Me^e/cA^s 97 KaAAitrrparos) mentions a work irepl 'ABrjvuv, which some ascribed to Menecles and others to Callistratus, but the read­ing in the passage of Harpocration is uncertain, and Preller (Polem. Fragm. p. 173, &c.) thinks that KaXXiKpdrTis ought to be read instead of KaAAio-Tparos. A commentary of Callistratus on the ©parrai of Cratinus is mentioned by Athenaeus (xi. p. 495). It is uncertain whether the Cal-listratus whose history of Samothrace is mentioned by Dionysius of Halicarnassus (i. 68 ; comp. Schol. ad Find. Nem. vii. 150) is the same as our gram­marian. (R. Schmidt, Commentatio de Cattistrato AristophaneO) Halae, 1838, 8vo.; Clinton, Fast, Hdlen. iii. p. 530.)

2. The author of a song upon Harmodius the tyrannicide, which appears to have enjoyed great popularity in antiquity. Its beginning is preserved in Suidas (s. v. flapoivios} and the Scholiast on Aristophanes. (AcJiarn. 956 ; comp. Hesych. s. v. 'Ap/xoSiou (UeAoy.) The whole song is preserved in Athenaeus. (xv. p. 695 ; comp. Brunck, Anal. i. p. 155.)

3. A comic actor of the time of Aristophanes, in whose comedies Acharnenses, Aves, and Vespae Callistratus performed, as we learn from the scholia on those plays. [L. S.] . CALLI'STRATUS, a Roman jurist, who, as appears from Dig. 1. tit. 19. s. 3. § 2, and from other passages in the Digest, wrote at least as late as the reign (a. d. 198-211) of Severus and Anto­ ninus ('/. e. Septimius Severus and Caracalla). In a passage of Lampridius {Aleoc. Sev. 68) which, either from interpolation or from the inaccuracy of the author, abounds with anachronisms, Callistra­ tus is stated to have been a disciple of Papinian, and to have been one of the council of Alexander Severus. This statement may be correct, notwith­ standing the suspicious character of the source whence it is derived.

The numerous extracts from Callistratus in the Digest occupy eighteen pages in HommePs Palin-genesia Pandectarum; and the fact that he is cited by no other j urist in the Digest, may be accounted for by observing, that the Digest contains extracts from few jurists of importance subsequent to Cal­listratus. The extracts from Callistratus are taken from works bearing the following titles : 1. " Libri VI de Cognitionibus." 2. "Libri VI Edict! Monitorii." 3. "Libri IV de Jure Fisci," or (Dig. 48, tit. 20. s. 1) "de Jure Fisci et Populi." 4. "Libri III Institutionum." 5. " Libri II

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