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On this page: Callisto – Callistonicus

callistratus.

Stobaeus (Floril. c. 14) has preserved a fragment of it which belonged to the twenty-third book. [L. S.] CALLISTO (KaAAifrrctf), is sometimes called a daughter of Lycaon in Arcadia and sometimes of Nycteus or Ceteus, and sometimes also she is de­scribed as a nymph. (Schol. ad Eurip. Orest. 1642; Apollod. iii. 8. § 2 ; comp. Hygin. Poet. Astr. ii. L) She was a huntress, and a companion of Artemis. Zeus, however,, enjoyed her charms ; and, in order that the deed might not become known to Hera, he metamorphosed her into a she-bear. But, not­withstanding this precaution, Callisto was slain by Arternis during the chase, through the contrivance of Hera. Areas, the son of Callisto, was given by Zeus to Maia to be brought up, and Callisto was placed among the stars under the name of Arctos. (Apollod. L <?.) According to Hyginus, Artemis herself metamorphosed Callisto, as she discovered her pregnancy in the bath. Ovid (Met. ii. 410, &c.) makes Juno (Hera) metamorphose Callisto ; and when Areas during the chase was on the point of killing his mother, Jupiter (Zeus) placed both among the stars. The Arcadians shewed the tomb of Caliisto thirty stadia from the well Cruni: it was on a hill planted with trees, and on the top of the hill there was a temple of Artemis Calliste or Callisto. (Paus. viii. 35. § 7.) A statue of Callisto was dedicated at Delphi by the citizens of Tegea (x. 9. § 3), and in the Lesche of Delphi Callisto was painted by Polygnotus, wearing the skin of a bear

instead of a dress, (x. 31, § 3.) While tradition

throughout describes Callisto as a companion of Artemis, Mtiller (Dor. ii. 9. § 3) endeavours to shew that Callisto is only another form of the name of Artemis Calliste, as he infers from the fact, that the tomb of the heroine was connected with the temple of the goddess, and from Callisto being- changed into a she-bear, which was the symbol of the Arcadian Artemis. This view has indeed no­ thing surprising, if we recollect that in many other instances also an attribute of a god was transform­ ed by popular belief into a distinct divinity. Her being mixed up with the Arcadian genealogies is thus explained by Miiller : the daughter of Lycaon means the daughter of the Lycaean Zeus; the mo­ ther of Areas is equivalent to the mother of the Arcadian people. [L. S.]

CALLISTO, a female Pythagorean, to whom Theano, the wife of Pythagoras, addressed a letter on the proper way of governing a family. The letter is extant, and printed in the Aldine collec­ tion published at Rome in 1499, and at Geneva, with the Latin translation, in 1606. (Fabric. Bill. Graec. ii. p. 10.) [A. G.]

CALLISTONICUS (KaAAio-roWos), a The- ban statuary mentioned by Pausanias (ix. 16. § 1), made a statue of Tyche carrying the god Plutus. The face and the hands of the statue were executed bv the Athenian Xenophon. . [W. I.]

" CALLI'STRATUS (KaAAtVrparos), historical. 1. Son of Empedus, is mentioned by Pausanias as the commander of a body of Athenian cavalry in Sicily during the expedition of Nicias. When his countrymen were nearly cut to pieces at the river Assinarus, b. c. 413, Callistratus forced his way through the enemy and led his men safe to Catana. Thence returning to Syracuse, he attacked those who were plundering the Athenian camp, and fell, gelling his life dearly. (Paus. vii. 16 ; comp. Thuc. vii. 84, 85.)

2. One of the body of knights under the com-

CALLISTRATUS. 577

mand of Lysimachus, who were employed by tlia government of the Ten to keep in check the exiles under Thrasybulus in the Peiraeeus. Lysimachus having massacred some countrymen, .with whom he fell in as they were going from the Peiraeeus to their farms to procure provisions, the party in the harbour, having got Callistratus into their hands, retaliated by putting him to death, b. c. 403. (Xen. Hell. ii. 4. § 27.) In b. c. 410, this Cal­listratus had been treasurer of the goddess. Per­haps also he was the originator of the practice of paying the poorer citizens for their attendance at the assembly ((JLiaQbs e/c/cat?crmcm/cos) ; but Bockh thinks that the introduction of this salary is more probably to be referred to the son of Empedu-s, (Publ. JEcon. of Athens, bk. ii. ch. 14.)

3. An Athenian orator, son of Callicrates of Aphidna, and nephew of the notorious Agyrrhius. (Dem. c. Timocr. p. 742.) We first hear of him in b. c. 379, as connected with the oligarchical party, and as sending to Thebes to warn Leon-tiades of the intended attempt on the Cadmeia by the exiles under Pelopidas ; and yet in the follow­ing year, 378, he was joined with Chabrias and Timotheus in the command of the forces which were despatched to the assistance of Thebes against Agesilaus. (Plut. de Gen. Socrat. 31 ; Xen. Hell. v. 4. § 34; Diod. xv. 29.) Still, however, he ap­pears as the supporter at Athens of Spartan in­terests. Thus, in 373, he joined Iphicrates in the prosecution of Timotheus, who had been most ac­tive against Sparta in the western seas, and had, in fact, by his restoration of the Zacynthian exiles, caused the renewal of war after the short peace of 374. (Dem. c. Timoth. pp.1187, 1188; Xen. Hell. vi. 2. §§ 11—13, comp. v. 4. § 64, &c., vi. 2. §§ 2, 3.) In 373 also, but before the trial of Timotheus, Callistratus had been appointed com­mander, together with Iphicrates and Chabrias, of the forces destined for Corcyra,—and this at the request of Iphicrates himself, to whom (according to one mode of interpretating the words of Xeno­phon, ov fj.d\a eTrLTijSeioi/ ovTo) he had hitherto been opposed. (Xen. Hell. vi. 2. § 39 ; compare Schneid. Epimetr. ad loc.; Thirl wall's Greece^ vol. v. p. 63, note 2; Bockh, Publ. JEcon. of Athens, p. 419, note 497, 2nd. edit.; Dem. c. Timoth. p. 1187.) Soon, however, he induced Iphicrates to consent to his returning to Athens, promising either to obtain for him a supply of money, or to bring about a peace; and in 371 accordingly we find him at Sparta with the ambassadors,—himself apparently without that title,— who were em­powered to negotiate peace for Athens. On this occasion Xenophon records a speech delivered by him after those of Callias and Autocles, and the only pertinent and sensible one of the three. (Xen. Nell. vi. 3. §§ 3, 10, &c.; see Diod. xv. 38, 51, who in the former passage assigns the mission of Callistratus to b. c. 375, confounding the peace of 371 with that of 374, and placing the latter a year too soon.) Again, in 369, the year of the in­vasion of Laconia by Epaminondas, Callistratus induced the Athenians to grant the aid which the Spartans had sent to ask. (Dem. c. Neaer. p. 1353 ; comp. Xen. Hell. vi. 5. § 33, &c.) To b.c. 366 we may with most probability refer his famous speech on the affair of Oropus,—a speech which is said to have excited the emulation of Demosthenes, and caused him to devote himself to the study of oratory. It would seem that, after the seizure of

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