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On this page: Callipygos – Callirrhoe – Calliste – Callisthenes

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CALLIPPUS.

with Aristotle (who mentions him MetapJi. xi. 8), and assisted that philosopher in rectifying and completing the discoveries of Eudoxus. (Simplic. in lib. II. de Cod. p. 120, a.) His observations are frequently referred to by Geminus and Ptolemy in their meteorological calendars (see Geminus, Elem. Astron. cap. 16, in Petav. Uranolog. p. 64,&c. and Ptol. </>a<reis dir\avwv dcrrspuv kcl\ (rvvayooyri e7no")7/m<nco*>, ibid. p. 71, &c.), and were probably made at Cyzicus, since Ptolemy (ad fin.) says, that Callippus observed at the Hellespont. Such calen­dars were fixed in public places, for common use, and hence called TrapaTn^ccra : they record the times of the different risings and settings of the fixed stars, with the eiricnrjiJiacriai, or principal changes in the weather supposed to be connected with them, as deduced from the observations of various astronomers. Callippus invented the period or cycle of 76 years, called after him the Callippic. Several attempts had been previously made to dis­cover intervals of time of moderate length^ which should be expressible in whole numbers by means of each of the three natural units of time—the solar year, the lunar month, and the solar day : and, in particular, Meton, about a century before, had ob­served the remarkable approximation to equality between 19 years and 235 months, and had intro­duced the celebrated cycle of 19 years, which he also assumed to contain 6940 days. This would make the year = 365-^- days; and, therefore, Cal­lippus, observing that the difference between this and the more correct value 365£ was -f§ — •£$ = 3;xV9 = i-g, proposed to quadruple the Metonic period, and then subtract one day. He supposed, that 76 years = 940 months = 27759 days; both of which suppositions are considerably nearer the truth than Meton's. (Geminus, El. Ast. cap. 6, Uranolog. p. 37.) If we take the mean values of the year and month, in days, to be 365*2422414 and 29-5305887215 respectively, then 76 years = 27758d 9h 50lu 54s, and 940 months = 27758d 18h 4m 54s nearly; out these numbers would not be strictly accurate in the time of Callippus.

The Callippic period seems to have been generally adopted by astronomers in assigning the dates of their observations; and the frequent use which Ptolemy makes of it enables us to fix the epoch of the beginning of the first period with considerable certainty. It must have begun near the time of the summer solstice, since Ptolemy refers to an observa­tion of that solstice made at the end of the 50th year (jqv ersi Xriywri) of the first period (/J-ey. <nWa£. iii. 2, vol. i. p. 163, ed. Halma) ; and out o'f a num­ber of other observations recorded by the same writer, all but two, according to Ideler, indicate the year b. c. 330, whilst four of them require the evening of June 28 for the epoch in question. It is not certain at what time the period came into civil use; it would naturally be employed not to supersede, but to correct from time to time, the Metonic reckoning. The inaccuracy of the latter must have become quite sensible in b. c. 330 ; and it is evident, from the praise which Diodorus (xii. 36) bestows upon it, that it could not have re­mained uncorrected down to his time. (Ideler, Hist. Untersuch. uber die Astron. Beobachtungen der Alten, Berlin, 1806, p. 214, &c., Handbuch der Technischen. Chronologie, Berlin, 1825, vol. i. p. 344, &c.; Petavius, Doctrin. Temp. ii. 16 ; Scali-ger, De Emend. Temp. lib. ii.; Delambre, Hist, de rAstron. Ancienne, vol. i. p. 200.) [W. F. D.j

CALLISTHENES.

CALLIPYGOS (KccAAhnrxos), a surname of Aphrodite, of which the origin is related by Athe- naeus. (xii. p. 554; comp. Alciphron, i. 39.) We still possess some representations of Aphrodite Cal- lipygos, which are distinguished for their great softness, luxuriancy, and roundness of form. (Hirt, Mytliol. Bilderb. i. p. 59.) [L. S.]

CALLIRRHOE (KoAA^rfi?). 1. A daughter of Oceanus, who was the mother of Geryones and Echidna by Chrysaor. (Hesiod, Theog. 351, 981 ; Apollod. ii. 5. § 10.) By Neilus she was the mo­ther of Chione, and by Poseidon of Minyas. (Serv. ad Aen. iv. 250 ; Tzetz. ad Lycopli. 686.)

2. A daughter of Achelous and wife of Alcmaeon, whom she induced to procure her the peplus and necklace of Harmonia, by which she caused her husband's death. [alcmaeon.] Callirrhoe then requested Zeus, with whom she lived in close in­timacy, to grant that her sons by Alcmaeon might grow up to manhood at once, in order that they might be able to avenge the death of their father. Zeus granted the request, and Amphoterus and Acarnan killed the murderers of their father, the sons of Phegeus, at Delphi, and afterwards Phe-geus himself also. (Apollod. iii. 7. § 6.)

3. A daughter of Scamander, the wife of Tros, and mother of Ilus and Ganymedes. (Apollod. iii. 12. § 2.)

4. A maiden of Calydon, who, when she was loved by Coresus, a priest of Dionysus, rejected all the offers he made to her. At length, he implored his god to punish the cruel maid. Dionysus now visited the people of Calydon with a general mad­ness, which raged there like a plague. The Dodo-naean oracle, which was consulted about the mode of averting the calamity, answered, that Dionysus must be propitiated, and that Callirrhoe must be sacrificed to him, or some one else in her stead. The maiden endeavoured in vain to escape her fate; but when she was led to the altar, Coresus, instead of performing the sacrifice, felt his love for her re­vive so strongly, that he sacrificed himself in her stead. But she also now put an end to her life near a well which derived its name from her. (Paus. vii. 21. § 1.) There are two more mythical personages of this name. (Steph. By/, s. v. 'AAa-&iz/5a; Pint. Parallel. Gr. et Rom. 23.) [L. S.]

CALLISTE (KaAAicm?), a surname of Artemis, by which she was worshipped at Athens and Tegea. (Paus. i. 29. § 2, viii. 35. § 7.) [L. S.]

CALLISTHENES (KaAAwrfle'^s). 1. A phi­losopher, born at Olynthus. His mother, Hero, was a cousin of Aristotle's, and by him Callisthenes was brought up, studying under him at Stageira, together, as we may infer, with Alexander, and certainly with Theophrastus, with whom Aristotle is said to have contrasted him, saying, that Theo­phrastus needed the rein, but Callisthenes the spur [but see p. 317, b.]. When Alexander set forth on his Asiatic expedition, b. c. 334, he took Callisthenes with him by Aristotle's recommenda­tion. The latter, however, was aware of the faults of his kinsman's character, of his total want of tact and prudence, and of his wrong-headed propensity to the unseasonable exhibition of his independent spirit; and against these he warned him to guard in his intercourse with the king. The warning was given in vain. Callisthenes became indignant at Alexander's adoption of ori­ental customs, and especially at the requirement of the ceremony of adoration, which he deemed

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