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On this page: Calliphana – Calliphon – Callippides – Callippus

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CALLIPPUS,

sui. Barth, on the other hand, maintained, that Calliopius was a complimentary epithet, indicating the celebrated Flaccus Albinus or Alcuinus, whom in a MS. life of Willebrord he found designated as " Dominus Albinus magister optimus Calliopicus," i. e. totus a Calliope et Musis formatus; but the probability of this conjecture has been much weak­ ened by Fabricius, who has shewn that Calliopius was a proper name not uncommon among writers of the middle ages. (Funccius, de Inerti etc Decre- pita Linguae Latinue Senectute, c. iv. § xxxii.; Fa­ bric. Bibl. Lat. lib. i. c. iii. §§ 3 and 4; Eust. Swartii Analecta^ iii. 11, p. 132; Barth. Advers. vi. 20; Ritschl, De emendat. Fab. Terentt^ disput., Wratislav. 4to. 1838.) [W. R.]

CALLIPHANA, a priestess of Velia. In b. c. 98, the praetor urbanus C. Valerius Flaccus, in pursuance of a decree of the senate, brought a bill before the people, that Calliphana should be made a Roman citizen. This was done before the Ve- lienses obtained the Roman franchise, and for the purpose of enabling the priestess of a foreign divi­ nity at Rome to perform sacrifices on behalf of Romans also. (Cic. pro Balb. 24.) [L. S.]

CALLIPHON (Ka\\uj>£v)i a philosopher, and most probably a disciple of Epicurus, who is men­ tioned several times and condemned by Cicero as making the chief good of man to consist in an union of virtue (honestas) and bodily pleasure (TJSopr;, voluptas), or, as Cicero says, in the union of the man with the beast. (Cic. de Fin. ii. 6, 11, iv. 18, v. 8, 25, de Off. iii. 33, Tusc. v. 30, 31; Clem. Alex. Strom. 2. § 127.) [A. G.]

CALLIPHON (KaAAt^wp), a Samian painter, employed to decorate the temple of Artemis at Ephesus. (Paus. v. 19. § 1, x. 25. § 2.) [W. I.]

CALLIPPIDES (KoAAWSp), of Athens, a celebrated tragic actor of the time of Alcibiades and Agesilaus. (Plut. Alcib. 32, Ages. 21; Athen. xii. p. 535.) He was particularly famous for his imitation of the actions of real life, which he carried so far as to become ridiculous, and to be stigmatized by the nickname of the ape (iridrjKos. See the Greek life of Sophocles; Apostolius, Proverb, xv. 39). A comedy of Strattis entitled Callippides seems to have been composed to ridicule our actor. (Meineke, Fragm. Com. Grace, i. p. 226); and it is not improbable that Cicero (ad Alt. xiii. 12) may be alluding to Callippides the actor. (Orelli, Ono- mast. Tull. ii. p. 119.) [L. S.]

CALLIPPUS (KcUAfTTTros), historical. 1. Of Athens, was a disciple of Plato, and thus became acquainted with Dion of Syracuse, who was like­wise among the pupils of Plato. When Dion afterwards returned to Syracuse, Callippus accom­panied him, and was ever after treated by him with distinction and confidence. Notwithstanding this, Callippus formed at last a conspiracy against the life of Dion. The plot was discovered by Dion's sister; but Callippus pacified them by swearing, that he had no evil intentions towards Dion. But in spite of this oath, he assassinated Dion during a festival of Persephone, the very di­vinity by whom he had sworn, b.c. 353. Callippus now . usurped the government of Syracuse, but maintained himself only for thirteen months. The first attempt of Dion's friends to cause an insur­rection of the people against the usurper was un­successful ; but, a short time after, Hipparenus, a brother of the younger Dionysius, landed with a fleet at Syracuse, and Callippus, who was defeated

CALLIPPUS.

in the ensuing battle, took to flight. He now wandered about in Sicily from town to town, at the head of a band of licentious mercenaries, but could not maintain himself anywhere. At last he and Leptines, with their mercenaries, crossed over into Italy, and laid siege to Rhegium, which waa occupied by a garrison of Dionysius the Younger. The garrison was expelled, and the citizens of Rhegium were restored to autonomy, and Callip­pus himself remained at Rhegium. He treated his mercenaries badly, and being unable to satisfy their demands, he was murdered by his own friends, Leptines and Polyperchon, with the same sword, it is said, with which he had assassinated Dion. (Plut. Dion. 28—58, de Sera Num. Vind. p. 553, d.; Diod. xvi. 31, 36, 45 ; Athen. xi. p. 508.)

2. Of Athens, took part in the Olympic games in b. c. 332. He bribed his competitors in the pentathlon to allow him to conquer and win the prize. But the fraud became known, and the Eleans condemned both Callippus and his competi­tors to pay a heavy fine. The Athenians, who considered the affair as a national one, sent Hype-rides to petition the Eleans to desist from their de­mand. When the request was refused, the Athe­nians neither paid the fine nor did they frequent the Olympic games .any longer, until at last the Delphic god declared that he would not give any oracle to the Athenians, unless they satisfied the demand of the Eleans. The fine was now paid, and the money was spent in erecting six statues to Zeus, with inscriptions by no means flattering to the Athenians. (Paus. v. 21. § 3, &c.)

3. Of Athens, a son of Moerocles, a brave com­mander of the Athenians in the war against the Gauls, B. c. 279. He was stationed with his Athe­nians at Thermopylae to guard the pass. (Paus. i. 3. § 4, x. 20. § 3.)

4. An admiral of king Perseus of Macedonia. He and Antenor were sent by the king, in b. c. 168, with a fleet to Tenedos, to protect the trans­ ports that came with provisions for the Macedo­ nians from the islands of the Aegean. (Liv. xliv. 28.) [L. S.]

CALLIPPUS (Ka'AAiTTTros), literary. ]. A comic .poet, who is mentioned only by Athenaeus (xv. p. 668) as the author of a comedy entitled Pannychis. Person proposed to read in this pas­sage Hipparchus instead of Callippus, because it is known that Hipparchus composed a comedy Pan­nychis. (Athen. xv. p. 691.) But this is not a sufficient reason for striking the name of Callippua from the list of comic writers. (Meineke, Hist. Grit. Com. Gr. p. 490.)

2. Of Athens, is mentioned by Aristotle (Rhet. ii. 23) as the author of a t&xvt] ptjTopiK^, but no­thing further is known about him.

3. A Stoic philosopher of Corinth, who was a pupil of Zeno, the founder of the school. (Diog. Laert.'vii. 38.) He seems to be the same person as the Callippus mentioned by Pausanias (ix. 29. § 2, 38. § 10) as the author of a work entitled crvyypa<f)T] els 'Opxo/Aeviovs, of which a few frag­ments are preserved there.

4. Surnamed Petaneus, is mentioned by Dio­ genes Laertius (v. 57) as one of the witnesses to the will of Theophrastus. [L. S.]

CALLIPPUS or CALIPPUS (Kd\\nriros or KaAiTTTros), an astronomer of Cyzicus. He was a disciple of one of Eudoxus' friends, and followed him to Athens, where he became acquainted

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