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sui. Barth, on the other hand, maintained, that Calliopius was a complimentary epithet, indicating the celebrated Flaccus Albinus or Alcuinus, whom in a MS. life of Willebrord he found designated as " Dominus Albinus magister optimus Calliopicus," i. e. totus a Calliope et Musis formatus; but the probability of this conjecture has been much weak ened by Fabricius, who has shewn that Calliopius was a proper name not uncommon among writers of the middle ages. (Funccius, de Inerti etc Decre- pita Linguae Latinue Senectute, c. iv. § xxxii.; Fa bric. Bibl. Lat. lib. i. c. iii. §§ 3 and 4; Eust. Swartii Analecta^ iii. 11, p. 132; Barth. Advers. vi. 20; Ritschl, De emendat. Fab. Terentt^ disput., Wratislav. 4to. 1838.) [W. R.]
CALLIPHANA, a priestess of Velia. In b. c. 98, the praetor urbanus C. Valerius Flaccus, in pursuance of a decree of the senate, brought a bill before the people, that Calliphana should be made a Roman citizen. This was done before the Ve- lienses obtained the Roman franchise, and for the purpose of enabling the priestess of a foreign divi nity at Rome to perform sacrifices on behalf of Romans also. (Cic. pro Balb. 24.) [L. S.]
CALLIPHON (Ka\\uj>£v)i a philosopher, and most probably a disciple of Epicurus, who is men tioned several times and condemned by Cicero as making the chief good of man to consist in an union of virtue (honestas) and bodily pleasure (TJSopr;, voluptas), or, as Cicero says, in the union of the man with the beast. (Cic. de Fin. ii. 6, 11, iv. 18, v. 8, 25, de Off. iii. 33, Tusc. v. 30, 31; Clem. Alex. Strom. 2. § 127.) [A. G.]
CALLIPPIDES (KoAAWSp), of Athens, a celebrated tragic actor of the time of Alcibiades and Agesilaus. (Plut. Alcib. 32, Ages. 21; Athen. xii. p. 535.) He was particularly famous for his imitation of the actions of real life, which he carried so far as to become ridiculous, and to be stigmatized by the nickname of the ape (iridrjKos. See the Greek life of Sophocles; Apostolius, Proverb, xv. 39). A comedy of Strattis entitled Callippides seems to have been composed to ridicule our actor. (Meineke, Fragm. Com. Grace, i. p. 226); and it is not improbable that Cicero (ad Alt. xiii. 12) may be alluding to Callippides the actor. (Orelli, Ono- mast. Tull. ii. p. 119.) [L. S.]
CALLIPPUS (KcUAfTTTros), historical. 1. Of Athens, was a disciple of Plato, and thus became acquainted with Dion of Syracuse, who was likewise among the pupils of Plato. When Dion afterwards returned to Syracuse, Callippus accompanied him, and was ever after treated by him with distinction and confidence. Notwithstanding this, Callippus formed at last a conspiracy against the life of Dion. The plot was discovered by Dion's sister; but Callippus pacified them by swearing, that he had no evil intentions towards Dion. But in spite of this oath, he assassinated Dion during a festival of Persephone, the very divinity by whom he had sworn, b.c. 353. Callippus now . usurped the government of Syracuse, but maintained himself only for thirteen months. The first attempt of Dion's friends to cause an insurrection of the people against the usurper was unsuccessful ; but, a short time after, Hipparenus, a brother of the younger Dionysius, landed with a fleet at Syracuse, and Callippus, who was defeated
in the ensuing battle, took to flight. He now wandered about in Sicily from town to town, at the head of a band of licentious mercenaries, but could not maintain himself anywhere. At last he and Leptines, with their mercenaries, crossed over into Italy, and laid siege to Rhegium, which waa occupied by a garrison of Dionysius the Younger. The garrison was expelled, and the citizens of Rhegium were restored to autonomy, and Callippus himself remained at Rhegium. He treated his mercenaries badly, and being unable to satisfy their demands, he was murdered by his own friends, Leptines and Polyperchon, with the same sword, it is said, with which he had assassinated Dion. (Plut. Dion. 28—58, de Sera Num. Vind. p. 553, d.; Diod. xvi. 31, 36, 45 ; Athen. xi. p. 508.)
2. Of Athens, took part in the Olympic games in b. c. 332. He bribed his competitors in the pentathlon to allow him to conquer and win the prize. But the fraud became known, and the Eleans condemned both Callippus and his competitors to pay a heavy fine. The Athenians, who considered the affair as a national one, sent Hype-rides to petition the Eleans to desist from their demand. When the request was refused, the Athenians neither paid the fine nor did they frequent the Olympic games .any longer, until at last the Delphic god declared that he would not give any oracle to the Athenians, unless they satisfied the demand of the Eleans. The fine was now paid, and the money was spent in erecting six statues to Zeus, with inscriptions by no means flattering to the Athenians. (Paus. v. 21. § 3, &c.)
3. Of Athens, a son of Moerocles, a brave commander of the Athenians in the war against the Gauls, B. c. 279. He was stationed with his Athenians at Thermopylae to guard the pass. (Paus. i. 3. § 4, x. 20. § 3.)
4. An admiral of king Perseus of Macedonia. He and Antenor were sent by the king, in b. c. 168, with a fleet to Tenedos, to protect the trans ports that came with provisions for the Macedo nians from the islands of the Aegean. (Liv. xliv. 28.) [L. S.]
CALLIPPUS (Ka'AAiTTTros), literary. ]. A comic .poet, who is mentioned only by Athenaeus (xv. p. 668) as the author of a comedy entitled Pannychis. Person proposed to read in this passage Hipparchus instead of Callippus, because it is known that Hipparchus composed a comedy Pannychis. (Athen. xv. p. 691.) But this is not a sufficient reason for striking the name of Callippua from the list of comic writers. (Meineke, Hist. Grit. Com. Gr. p. 490.)
2. Of Athens, is mentioned by Aristotle (Rhet. ii. 23) as the author of a t&xvt] ptjTopiK^, but nothing further is known about him.
3. A Stoic philosopher of Corinth, who was a pupil of Zeno, the founder of the school. (Diog. Laert.'vii. 38.) He seems to be the same person as the Callippus mentioned by Pausanias (ix. 29. § 2, 38. § 10) as the author of a work entitled crvyypa<f)T] els 'Opxo/Aeviovs, of which a few fragments are preserved there.
4. Surnamed Petaneus, is mentioned by Dio genes Laertius (v. 57) as one of the witnesses to the will of Theophrastus. [L. S.]