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11.) But no work of Calibrates was known even as early as the time of Dionysius of Halicarnassus.
3. A Greek historian who lived in and after the time of the emperor Aurelian. He was a native of Tyre, and wrote the history of Aurelian. Vo- piscus (Aurd. 4), who has preserved a few frag ments of the work, describes Callicrates as by far the most learned writer among the Greeks of his time. [L. S.]
CALLICRATES (KaAAi/^ar^s). 1. An architect, who in company with Ictinus built the Parthenon on the Acropolis of Athens. (Plut. Pericl. 13.)
2. A Lacedaemonian sculptor, celebrated for the smallness of his works. (Aelian, V. H. i. 17.) He made ants and other animals out of ivory, which were so small that one could not distinguish the different limbs. (Plin. H. N. vii. 21, xxxvi. 5. s. 4.) According to Athenaeus (ix. p. 782, b.), he also executed embossed work on vases. [W. I.]
CALLICRATIDAS (KaAAiKpcm'Sas) was sent out in b. c. 406 to succeed Lysander as admiral of the Lacedaemonian fleet, and soon found that the jealousy of his predecessor, as well as the strong contrast of their characters, had left for him a harvest of difficulties. Yet he was not unsuccessful in surmounting these, and shewed that plain, straight-forward honesty may sometimes be no bad substitute for the arts of the supple diplomatist. The cabals of Lysander's partizans against him he quelled by asking them, whether he should remain where he was, or sail home to report how matters stood ; and even those who looked back with most regret to the winning and agreeable manners of his courtly predecessor, admired his virtue, says Plutarch, even as the beauty of a heroic statue. His great difficulty, however, was the want of funds, and for these he reluctantly went and applied to Cyrus, to whom it is said that Lysander, in order to thwart his successor, had returned the sums he held; but the proud Spartan spirit of Cal-licratidas could not brook to dance attendance at the prince's doors, and he withdrew from Sardis in disgust, declaring that the Greeks were most wretched in truckling to barbarians for money, and that, if he returned home in safety, he would do his best to reconcile Lacedaemon to Athens. He succeeded, however, in obtaining a supply from the Milesians, and he then commenced against the enemy a series of successful operations. The capture of the fortress of Delphinium in Chios and the plunder of Teos were closely followed by the conquest of Methymna. This last place Conon attempted to save, in spite of his inferiority in numbers, but, arriving too late, anchored for the night at 'EKarowrjo-oi. The next morning he was chased by Callicratidas, who declared that he would put a stop to his adultery ivith the sea, and was obliged to take refuge in Mytilene, where his opponent blockaded him by sea and land. Conon, however, contrived to send news to the Athenians of the strait in which he was, and a fleet of more than 150 sail was despatched to relieve him. Callicratidas then, leaving Eteonicus with 50 ships to conduct the blockade, proceeded with 120 to meet the enemy. A battle ensued at Arginusae, remarkable for the unprecedented number of vessels engaged, and in this Callicratidas was slain, and the Athenians were victorious. According to Xenophon, his steersman, Hermon, endeavoured to dissuade him from engaging with such superior num-
bers: as Diodorus and Plutarch tell it, the sooth sayer foretold the admiral's death. His answer at any rate, [m] Trap 2w elrai rdv ^apron/, became famous, but is mentioned with censure by Plutarch and Cicero. On the whole, Callicratidas is a some what refreshing specimen of a plain, blunt Spar tan of the old school, with all the guilelessness and simple honesty, but (it may be added) not without the bigotry of that character. Witness his answer, when asked what sort of men the lonians were : " Bad freemen, but excellent slaves.'* (Xen. Hell. i. 6. §§ 1—33; Diod. xiii. 76—79, 97—99 ; Plut. Lysand. 5—7, Pelop. 2, Apoph- thegm. Lacon; Cic. de Off. i. 24, 30.) Aelian tells us ( V. H. xii. 43), that he rose to the privi leges of citizenship from the condition of a slave (/uodav); but see Mitford's Greece, ch. xx. sec. 2, note 4.) [E. E.]
CALLICRATIDAS (KaAAiKpa-nSas), a disci ple of Pythagoras. Four extracts from his writings on the subject of marriage and domestic happiness are preserved in Stobaeus. (FloriL Ixx. 11, Ixxxv. 16—18.) [A. G.]
CALLICRITUS (Ka\\tKPiros), a Theban, was sent as ambassador from the Boeotians to the Roman senate, b. c. 187, to remonstrate against the requisition of the latter for the recall of Zeux-ippus from exile. The sentence of banishment had been passed against him both for sacrilege and for the murder of Brachyllas [see p. 502, a.] ; and Callicritus represented to the Romans on behalf of his countrymen, that they could not annul a sentence which had been legally pronounced. The remonstrance was at first unavailing, though ultimately the demand of the senate was not pressed, (Polyb. xxiii. 2.) It was probably the same Callicritus who strongly opposed in the Boeotian assembly the views of Perseus. He appears even to have gone to Rome to warn the senate of the king's schemes, and was murdered, by order of the latter, on his way back. (Liv. xlii. 13, 40.) [E. E.}
CALLICTER (KaAAiKTT^), surnamed Mcwri- (rios, a Greek poet, the author of four epigrams of little merit in the Greek Anthology. (Anthol. Graec. xi. 5, 6, 118, 333; Brunck, Anal. ii. pp. 294, 529.) [L. S.]
CALLIDEMUS (KaAAioVos), a Greek author about whom nothing is known, except that Pliny (PL N. iv. 12) and Solinus (17) refer to him as their authority for the statement, that the island of Euboea was originally called Chalcis from the fact of brass (xaA/co's) being discovered there first. [L. S.]
CALLIGEITUS (KaAA^eiros), a Megarian, and TIMAGORAS (Ttpayopas), a Cyzican, were sent to Sparta in b. c. 412 by Pharnabazus, the satrap of Bithynia, to induce the Lacedaemonians to send a fleet to the Hellespont, in order to assist the Hellespontine cities in revolting from Athens. The Lacedaemonians, however, through the influence of Alcibiades, preferred sending a fleet to Chios; but Calligeitus and Timagoras would not take part in this expedition, and applied the money which they brought from Pharnabazus to the equipment of a separate fleet, which left Peloponnesus towards the close of the year. (Thuc. viii. 6, 8? 39.)