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CALLIC&ATES.

league of Callibius, was slain. Callibius on this retreated with his forces close to the walls of the city, and, while he affected to open a negotiation with Stasippus, waited for the arrival of a rein­ forcement for which he had sent from Mantineia. On its appearance, Stasippus and his friends fled from the city and took refuge in the temple of Artemis; but the party of Callibius unroofed the building and attacked them with missiles, and being thus obliged to surrender, they were taken to Tegea and put to death after the mockery of a trial. (Xen. Hell. vi. 5. § 6, &c.; comp. Paus. viii. 27.) [E. E.]

CALLICLES (KaAAiKAiJs), a physician, who lived probably in the third or second century b. c., and who is mentioned by Galen (De Metli. Med. ii. 7. vol. x. p. 142) as having belonged to the medical sect of the Empirici. [ W. A. G.]

CALLICLES (KaAAiKA?7s). 1. A statuary of Megara, who lived about b. c. 400. (See Siebelis, ad Paus. iii. p. 2.9.) His principal works seem to have been Olympian victors (Paus. vi. 7. §§ 1, 3), and philosophers. (Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 8. s. 19. )

2. A painter of uncertain age and country (Plin. //. Ar. xxxv. 10. s. 37), is perhaps the same as the painter, Callicles, mentioned by Varro. (Fragm. p. 236, Bip.) [W. I.]

CALLICRATES (KoAAz/eptfcnjs), historical. 1. A Spartan, is mentioned by Herodotus as the finest and handsomest man of all the Greeks of his time. He was slain by an arrow just before the armies en­gaged at Plataea (b. c. 479), and while the Greeks were waiting till the signs from the sacrifices should be favourable. (Herod, ix. 72.) In Herod, ix. 85, his name occurs among the iptves who were buried separately from the rest of the Spar­tans and from the Helots. The word Ipeves, how­ever, can hardly be used here in its ordinary meaning of "youths," but has probably its original signification of " commanders." (See M'uller, Dor. ii. p, 315 -, Thirl wall's Greece, ii. p. 350, note.)

2. Calibrates is the name given to the murderer of Dion by Nepos (Dion, 8): he is called Callip-pus by Diodorus and Plutarch. [callippus.]

3. An accomplished flatterer at the court of Ptolemy III. (Euergetes), who, apparently mis­taking servility for knowledge of the world, affected to adopt Ulysses as his model. He is said to have worn a seal-ring with a head of Ulysses engraved on it, and to have given his children the names of Telegonus and Anticleia. (Athen. vi. p. 251, d.)

4. A man of Leontium in Achaia, who plays a somewhat disreputable part in the history of the Achaean league. By a decree of the Achaeans, solemnly recorded in b. c. 181, Lacedaemon had been received into their confederacy and the resto­ration of all Lacedaemonian exiles had been pro­vided for, with the exception of those who had repaid with ingratitude their previous restoration by the Achaeans. The Romans, however, had sent to urge the recall of these men, and in the debate in the assembly on this question, b. c. 179, Calibrates contended, in opposition to Lycortas, that the requisition should be complied with, openly maintaining, that neither law, nor solemn record, nor anything else, should be more regarded than the will of Rome. The assembly, however, favoured the view of Lycortas, and appointed ambassadors, of whom Callicrates was one, to lay it before the Roman senate. But he grievously

CALLICRATES.

abused his trust, and instigated the Romans to sap the independence of his country by giving their support in every city to the Roman or anti-national party. Returning home with letters from the senate, pressing the recall of the exiles, and highly commendatory of himself, he was made general of the league, and used all his influence thenceforth for the furtherance of the, Roman cause. (Polyb. xxv. 1, 2, xxvi. 1—3.) In b. c. 174 he successfully resisted the proposal of Xenar-chus, who was at that time general, for an alliance with Perseus. (Liv. xli. 23, 24.) Early in b. c. 168 he opposed the motion of Lycortas and his party for sending aid to the two Ptolemies (Philo-metor and Physcon) against Antiochus Epiphanes, recommending instead, that they should endeavour to mediate between the contending parties ; and he carried his point by introducing a letter from Q. Marcius, the Roman consul, in which the same course was urged. (Polyb. xxix. 8—10.) On the conquest of Macedonia by the Romans, b. c. 168, more than 1000 of the chief Achaeans, point­ed out by Callicrates as having favoured the cause of Perseus, were apprehended and sent to Rome7 to be tried, as it was pretended, before the senate, Among these was Polybius, the historian ; and he was also one of the survivors, who, after a deten­tion of 17 years, were permitted to return to their country. (Polyb. xxx. 10, xxxi. 8, xxxii. 7, 8, xxxiii. 1; Liv. xlv. 31; Paus. vii. 10.) The base­ness of Callicrates was visited on his head,—if, indeed, such a man could feel such a punishment, —in the intense hatred of his countrymen. Men deemed it pollution to use the same bath with him, and the very boys in the streets threw in his teeth the name of traitor. (Polyb. xxx. 20.) In B. c. 153 he dissuaded the league from taking any part in the war of the Rhodians against Crete, on the ground that it did not befit them to go to war at all without the sanction of the Romans. (Polyb. xxxiii. 15.) Three years after this, b. c. 150, Menalcidas, then general of the league, having been bribed by the Oropians with 10 talents to aid them against the Athenians, from whose gar­rison in their town they had received injury, engaged Callicrates in the same cause by the pro­mise of half the sum. The payment, however, he evaded, and Callicrates retaliated on Menalcidas by a capital charge; but Menalcidas escaped the danger through the favour of Diaeus, his successor in the office of general, whom he bribed with three talents. In b. c. 149, Callicrates was sent as ambassador to Rome with Diaeus, to oppose the Spartan exiles, whose banishment Diaeus had pro­cured, and who hoped to be restored by the senate. Callicrates, however, died at Rhodes, where they had touched on their way ; " his death," says Pausanias, " being, for aught I know, a clear gain to his country." (Paus. vii. 11, 12.) [E. E.J

CALLICRATES(KaAAz/cpcm7s),literary. 1. Is mentioned only once by Athenaeus (xiii. p. 586) as the author of a comedy called Moo^icoi', and from the connexion in which his name appears there with those of Antiphanes and Alexis, it may be inferred that he was a poet of the middle Attic comedy. (Meineke, Hist. Grit. Com. Gr. p. 418.)

2. A Greek orator who seems to have «lived about the time of Demosthenes, and to whom the tables of Pergamus ascribed the oration Kara, at?-^offQivovs Trapavo/JLwv, which was usually consider­ed the work of Deinarchus. (Dionys. Deinarch.

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