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probable date of Aristeides1* death. In Herodotus (vii. 153 ) Callias is mentioned as ambassador from Athens to Artaxerxes; and this statement we might identify with that of Diodorus, who ascribes to the victories of Cimon, through the negotiation of Callias, b. c. 449, a peace with Persia on terms most humiliating to the latter, were it not that ex­treme suspicion rests on the whole account of the treaty in question. (Paus. i. 8 ; Diod. xii. 4 ; Wes-seling, ad loc.; Mitford's Greece^ ch. xi. sec. 3, note 11; Thirlwall's Greece, vol. iii. pp. 37, 38, and the authorities there referred to; Bockh, Publ. Econ. of Athens, b. iii. ch. 12, b. iv. ch. 3.) Be this as it may, he did not escape impeachment after his return on the charge of having taken bribes, and was condemned to a fine of 50 talents, more than 12.000^., being a fourth of his whole property. (Dem. de Fals. Lee/, p. 428; Lys. pro Aristoph. Bon* § 50.)

5. hipponicus III., was the son of Callias II., and with Eurymedon commanded the Athenians in their successful incursion into the territory of Tanagra, b.c. 426, (Time. iii. 91; Diod. xii. 65.) He was killed at the battle of Delium, b. c. 424, where he was one of the generals. (Andoc. c. Alcib. p. 30.) It must therefore have been his divorced wife, and not his widow, whom. Pericles married. (Plut. Peric. 24; comp. Palm, ad Aristoph. Av. 283 ; Wesseling, ad Diod. xii. 65.) His daughter Hipparete became the wife of Alcibiades, with a dowry of ten talents, the largest, according to An­docides, that had ever before been given. (Andoc. c. Alcib. p. 30; Plut. Alcib. 8.) Another daughter of Hipponicus was married to Theodoras, and be­came the mother of Isocrates the orator. (Isocr. de Big. p. 353, a,) In Plato's " Cratylus," also (pp. 384, 391), Hermogenes is mentioned as a son of Hipponicus and brother of Callias; but, as in p. 391 he is spoken of as not sharing his father's pro­perty, and his poverty is further alluded to by Xenophon (Mem. ii. 10), he must have been ille­gitimate. (See Diet, of Ant. pp. 472, a., 598, b<) For Hipponicus, see also Ael. V. H. xiv. 16, who tells an anecdote of him with reference to Poly-cletus the sculptor.

6. callias III., son of Hipponicus III. by the lady who married Pericles (Plut. Peric. 24), was notorious for his extravagance and profligacy. We have seen, that he must have succeeded to his for­tune in b. c. 424, which is not perhaps irreconcile-able with the mention of him in the " Flatterers" of Eupolis, the comic poet, b. c. 421, as having recently entered on the inheritance. (Athen. v. p. 218, c.) In b. c. 400, he was engaged in the at­tempt to crush Andocides by a charge of profa­nation, in having placed a supplicatory bough on the altar of the temple at Eleusis during the cele­bration of the mysteries (Andoc. de Myst. § 110, &c,); and, if we may believe the statement of the accused, the bough was placed there by Callias himself, who was provoked at having been thwarted by Andocides in a very disgraceful and profligate attempt. In b. c. 392, we find him in command of the Athenian heavy-armed troops at Corinth on the occasion of the famous defeat of the Spartan Mora by Iphicrates. (Xen. Hell. iv. 5. § 13.) He was hereditary proxenus of Sparta, and, as such, was chosen as one of the envoys empowered to negotiate peace with that state in b. c, 371, on which occasion Xenophon reports an extremely absurd and self-glorifying speech of his (HelL vi. 3.



§ 2, &c.j comp. v. 4. § 22.) A vain and silly dilettante, an extravagant and reckless profligate, he dissipated all his ancestral wealth on sophists, flatterers, and women; and so early did these pro­ pensities appear in him, that he was commonly spoken of, before his father's death, as the " evil genius " (aAm?/nos) of his family. (Andoc. de Myst. § 130, £c.; comp. Aristoph. Ran. 429, Av. 284, &e.; Schol. ad Aristoph. Ran. 502; Athen. iv. p. 169, a,; Ael. V. H. iv. 16.) The scene of Xeno- phon's " Banquet," and also that of Plato's " Pro­ tagoras," is laid at his house; and in the latter especially his character is drawn with some vivid sketches as a trifling dilettante, highly amused with the intellectual fencing of Protagoras and Socrates. (See Plat. Protag. pp. 335, 338 ; comp. Plat. Apol. p. 20, a., Theaet. p. 165, a., Cratyl. p. 391.) He is said to have ultimately reduced himself to absolute beggary, to which the sarcasm of Iphicrates (Aristot. Rhet. iii. 2. § 10) in calling him nfiTpa-yvprtis instead of 5a5ou%os obviously refers; and he died at last in actual want of the common necessaries of life. (Athen. xii. p. 537, c.; Lys. pro Aristoph. Bon. § 50.) Aelian's erroneous account of his committing suicide is clearly nothing but gossip from Athenaeus by memory. (Ael. V. H. iv. 23 ; Perizon. ad loc.) He left a legitimate son. named Hipponicus. (Andoc. de Myst. § 126, which speech, from § 110 to § 131, has much reference to the profligacy of Callias.) [E. E.]

CALLIAS (KaAAias). 1. A soothsayer of the sacred Elean family of the lamidae. (Pind. Olymp. vi.), who, according to the account of the Croto-nians, came over to their ranks from those of Sy-baris, when he saw that the sacrifices foreboded destruction to the latter, b. c. 510. His services to Crotona were rewarded by an allotment of land, of which his descendants were still in possession when Herodotus wrote. (Herod, v. 44, 45.)

2. A wealthy Athenian, who, on condition of marrying Cimon's sister, Elpinice, paid for him the fine of fifty talents which had been imposed on Miltiades. (Plut. Cim. 4 ; Nepos, Cim. 1.) He appears to have been unconnected with the nobler family of Callias and Hipponicus, the Sqfiovxoi. It seems likely that his wealth arose from mining, and that it was a son or grandson of his who dis­covered a method of preparing cinnabar, b. c. 405. (Bockh, Dissert, on the Mines of Laurion, § 23.)

3. Son of Calliades, was appointed with four colleagues to the command of the second body of Athenian forces sent against Perdiccas and the revolted Chalcidians, b. c. 432, and was slain in the battle against Aristeus near Potidaea. (Thuc.. i. 61-63; Diod. xii. 37.) This is probably the same Callias who is mentioned as a pupil of Zeno the Eleatic, from whose instructions, purchased for 100 minae, he is said to have derived much real advantage, crowds koi eAAoyi/xos yeyovsv. (Pseudo-Plat. Alcib. i. p. 119 ; Buttmann, ad loc.}

4. The Chalcidian, son of Mnesarchus, together with his brother Taurosthenes, succeeded his father in the tyranny of Chalcis, and formed an alliance with Philip of Macedon in order to support himself against Plutarch us, tyrant of Eretria, or rather with the view of extending his authority over the whole of Euboea—a design which, according to Aeschines, he covered under the disguise of a plan for uniting in one league the states of the island, and establishing a general Euboean congress at Chaleis. Plutarchus accordingly applied to Athens

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