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CALLATIANUS, DEME'TRIUS (Aw«f- rptos KaAAcmayos), the author of a geographical work oil Europe and Asia (jrepl Evpdrnys nal ' Atrfas) in twenty books, which is frequently re ferred to by the ancients. (Diog. Laert. v. 83 ; Steph. Byz. s. v. 'Ai/ri/rJpa; Strab. i. p. 60; Dionys. Hal. de coinp. Verb. 4; Lucian. Macrob. 10; Schol. ad TJieocrit. i. 65, x. 19; Marcian. Heracl. passim.} [L. S.]
CALLIADES (KaAAfa^s), is mentioned by Herodotus (viii. 51) as archon eponymus of Athens at the time of the occupation of the city by the Persian army, e. c. 480. [E. E.]
CALLIADES (KaAAiaSr/s), a comic poet, who is mentioned by Athenaeus (xiii. p. 577), but about whom nothing further is known, than that a comedy entitleds/A7*'o:a was ascribed by seme to Diphilus and by others to Calliades. (Athen. ix. p. 401.) From the former passage of Athenaeus it must be inferred, that Calliades was a contem porary of the archon Eucleides, B. c. 403, and that accordingly he belonged to the old Attic comedy, whereas the fact of the Agnoea being disputed between him and Diphilus shews that he was a contemporary of the latter, and accordingly was a poet of the new Attic comedy. For this reason Meineke (Hist. Grit. Com. Gr. p. 450) is inclined to believe that the name Calliades in Athenaeus is a mistake for Callias. [L. S.]
CALLIADES (KaAAjaS???), the name of two artists, a painter spoken of by Lucian (Dial. Meretr. 8, p. 300), and a statuary, who made a statue of the courtezan Neaera. (Tatian, ad Graec. 55.) The age and country of both are unknown. (Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 8."s. 19.) [W. L]
CALLIANAX (Ka\\idva£), a physician, who probably lived in the third century b. c. He was one of the followers of Herophilus, and appears to have been chiefly known for the roughness and brutality of his manners towards his patients. Some of his answers have been preserved by Galen. To one of his patients who said he was about to die, he replied by the verse, El ^ ere atjtw KaXXiirais ryeiVaro: and to another who expressed the same fear he quoted the verse from Homer (II. xxi. 107), KdrOave Kal riarpo/cAos, oVep ffeo iro\\ov a.fj.£ivuv, (Galen, Comment, in Hippocr. " Epid. VI." iv. 9. vol. xvii. pt. ii. p. 145 ; Pallad. Comment. Hippocr. " Epid. VI." § 8? apud Dietz, Schol. in Hippocr. et Gal. vol. ii. p. 112.) [W. A. G.]
CALLIAS (KaAAias), a son of the Heracleid king Temenus, who, in conjunction with his bro thers, caused his father to be killed by some hired persons, because he preferred Deiphontes, the hus band of his daughter Hyrnetho, to his sons. (Apol- lod. ii. 8. § 5.) [L. S.]
CALLIAS and HIPPONI'CUS (KaAAi'as, 'iTTTroVi/cos), a noble Athenian family, celebrated for their wealth, the heads ol which, from the son of Phaenippus downwards [No. 2], received these names alternately in successive generations. (Aris-toph. Av. 283; Schol. ad loc.; Perizon. ad Ad.
1. hipponicus L, the first of the family on record, is mentioned by Plutarch (Sol. 15, comp. Pol. Praec. 13) as one of the three to whom Solon, shortly before the introduction of his <reicra'%0eia, B. c. 594, imparted his intention of diminishing the amount of debt while he abstained from interference with landed property. Of this information they are said to have made a fraudulent use, and to have enriched themselves by the purchase of large estates with borrowed money. Bb'ckh thinks, however (Publ. Econ. of Athens, b. iv. ch. 3), that this story against Hipponicus may have originated in the envy of his countrymen.
2. callias I., son of Phaenippus and probably nephew of the above, is mentioned by Herodotus (vi. 121) as a strong opponent of Peisistratus, and as the only man in Athens who ventured to buy the tyrant's property on each occasion of his expulsion. On the same authority, if indeed the chapter be not an interpolation (vi. 122; see Larcher, ad loc.], we learn,that he spent,much money in keeping horses, was a conqueror at the Olympic and Pythian games, at the former in b. c. 564 (SchoL ad Aristoph. Av. 283), and gave large dowries to his daughters, allowing them—a good and wise departure from the usual practice—to marry any of the Athenians they pleased.
3. hipponicus II., surnamed Ammon, son of Callias L, is said to have increased his wealth considerably by the treasures of a Persian general, which had been entrusted to Diomnestus, a man of Eretria, on the first invasion of that place by the Persians. The invading army being all destroyed Diomnestus kept the money; but his heirs., on the second Persian invasion, transmitted it to Hipponicus at Athens, and with him it ultimately remained, as all the captive Eretrians (comp. Herod, vi. 118) were sent to Asia. This story is-given by Athenaeus (xii. pp. 536, f., 537, a.) on the authority of Heracleides of Pontus; but it is open to much suspicion from its inconsistency with the account of Herodotus, who mentions only one invasion of Eretria, and that a successful one b. c. 490. (Herod, vi. 99—101.) Possibly the anecdote, like that of Callias \aicKOTr\ovros below, was. one of the modes in which the gossips of Athens accounted for the large fortune of the family.
4. callias II.," son of No. 3, was present in his priestly dress at the battle of Marathon; and the story runs that, on the rout of the enemy, a Persian, claiming his protection, pointed out to him a treasure buried in a pit, and that he slew the man and appropriated the money. Hence the surname Aa/c/c^TrAoyros (Plut. Aristeid. 5 ; Schol. ad Aristoph. Nub. 65; Hesych. and Suid. s. v. \a.KK6ir\ovTos), which, however, we may perhaps rather regard as having itself suggested the tale, and as having been originally, like fia.6vir\ovTos9 expressive of the extent of the family's wealth. (Bb'ckh, Publ. Econ. of Athens, b. iv. ch. 3.) His enemies certainly were sufficiently malignant, if not powerful; for Plutarch (Aristeid. 25), on the authority of Aeschines the Socratic, speaks of a capital prosecution instituted against him on extremely weak grounds. Aristeides, who was his. cousin, was a witness on the trial, which must therefore have taken place before b. c. 468, the