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.• CALE'NUS, JU'LIUS, an Aeduan. After the battle of Cremona, in a. d. 69, in which the army of Vitellius was defeated by Antonius Primus, Julius Calenus, who had himself belonged to the Vitellian party, was sent to Gaul as a living proof of their defeat. (Tac. Hist. iii. 35.) [L. S.] CALE'NUS, M. VALE'RIUS CORVUS.
CALGACUS or GA'LGACUS, a British chief who distinguished himself among his countrymen in the war with Agricola. Tacitus (Ayr. ,29, &c.) gives a noble specimen of his love of liberty in the speech he puts into his mouth. [L. S.]
CALIDIANUS, C. COSCONJUS. [Cosco-
CALIDIUS or CALLI'DIUS. 1. cn. calidius, a Roman knight in Sicily, of high rank and great influence, whose son was a Roman judex and senator, was robbed of some of his plate by Verres. (Cic. Verr. iv. 20.)
2. Q. calidius, tribune of the plebs in b. c. 99, carried a law in this year for the recall of Q. Me-tellus Numidicus from banishment. In gratitude for this service, his son Q. Metellus Pius, who was then consul, supported Calidius in his canvas for the praetorship in B. p. 80. Calidius was accordingly praetor in b. c. 79, and obtained one of the Spanish provinces; but, on his return to Rome, he was accused of extortion in his province by Q. Lol-lius (not Gallius, as the Pseudo-Asconius states), and condemned by his judges, who had been bribed for the purpose. As, however, the bribes had not been large, Calidius made the remark, that a man of praetorian rank ought not to be condemned for a less sum than three million sesterces. (Val. Max. v. 2. § 7; Cic. pro Plane. 28, 29 ; Cic. Verr. Act. i. 13 ; Pseudo-Ascon. ad loc.; Cic. Verr. iii. 25.) This Calidius may have been the one who was sent from Rome, about b. c. 82, to command Murena to desist from the devastation of the territories of Mith-ridates. (Appian, Mithr. 65.)
3. M. calidius, son of No. 2 (Pseudo-Ascon. ad Cic. Verr. Act. i. 13), a celebrated orator, studied under Apollodorus of Pergamus, who was also the teacher of the emperor Augustus. (Euseb. Chron. Ol. 179. 2.) Cicero passes (Brut. 79, 80) a high panegyric upon Calidius' oratory, which he characterizes at considerable length, and particularly praises the clearness and elegance of his style. But while Calidius explained a thing most lucidly, and was listened to with the greatest pleasure, he was not so successful in carrying with him the feelings of his hearers and producing conviction. Velleius Paterculus (ii. 36) classes him with Cicero, Hortensius, and the other chief orators of his time, and Quintilian (xii. 10. § 10) also speaks of the " subtilitas" of Calidius.
The first oration of Calidius of which we have mention was delivered in b. c. 64, when he accused Q. Gallius, a candidate for the praetorship, of bribery. Gallius was defended by Cicero, of whose oration a few fragments are extant. (Ascon. in Oral, in Toy. cand. p. 88, ed. Orelli; Cic. Brut. 80; Festus, s. v. Sufes.) In b. c. 57 Calidius was praetor, and in that year spoke in favour of restoring the house of Cicero, having previously supported
his recall from banishment. (Quintil. x. i. § 23 ; Cic. post. Red. in Sen. 9.) In b. c. 54, he defended, in conjunction with Cicero and others, M. Aemilius Scaurus, who was accused of extortion. (Ascon. in Scaur, p. 20.) He also spoke in the same year on behalf of the freedom of the inhabitants of Tenedos, and in support of Gabinius. (Cic. ad Q. Fr. ii. 11, iii. 2.) In b. c. 52, Calidius was one of the supporters of Milo, after the death of Clodius (Ascon. in Milon. p. 35); and in the following year (51) he was a candidate for the consulship, but lost his election, and was accused of bribery by the two Gallii, one of whom he had himself accused in b. c. 64. (Gael, ap Cic. ad Fam. viii. 4, 9.)
In the debate in the senate at the beginning of January, b. c. 49, Calidius gave it as his opinion that Pompey ought to depart to his provinces to prevent any occasion for war; and on the breaking out of the civil war immediately afterwards, he joined Caesar, by whom he was appointed to the government of the province of Gallia Togata. He died at Placentia, in his province, in b. c. 48. (Caes. B. C. i. 2; Euseb. Chron. 01. 180. 4.)
(The fragments of the orations of Calidius are given in Meyer's Oratorum Roman. Fragm. p. 434, &c. 2nd ed.; comp. Ellendt's Prolegomena to his edition of Cicero's Brutus, p. cvii. and Westermann's Gesch. der Rom. Beredtsamkeit, § 69, not. 6—11.)
The coin annexed refers to this M. Calidius. It bears on the obverse the head of Rome, and on the reverse Victory in a two-horse chariot, with the inscription m. calid. q. me. cn. fl., that is, M. Calidius, Q. Metellus, and Cn. Fulvius, being triumvirs of the mint.
CALIDUS, L. JU'LIUS (some MSS. have calidius, but this last is a gentile appellation and not a cognomen), is pronounced by Cornelius Nepos (Att 12) worthy of holding the first place among the Roman poets of his day, after the death of Catullus and Lucretius. This must, of course, be understood to refer to the period immediately anterior to the Augustan era. Calidus had great possessions in Africa, and was proscribed in consequence by Volumnius, one of the creatures of Antony, but his name was erased from the fatal list through the interposition of Atticus. [W. R.]
CALIGULA, the third in the series of Roman emperors, reigned from A. d. 37 to A. d. 41. His real name was Caius Caesar, and he received that of Caligula in the camp, from caligae, the foot dress of the common soldiers, when he was yet a boy with his father in Germany. As emperor, however, he was always called by his contemporaries Caius, and he regarded the name of Caligula as an insult. (Senec. De Constant. 18.) He was the youngest son of Germanicus, the nephew of Tiberius, by Agrippina, and was born on the 31st of August, A. d. 12. (Suet. Cat. 8.) The place of his birth was a matter of doubt with the ancients; according to some, it was Tibur; according to others, Treves on the Moselle; but Suetonius has proved from the public documents of Antium