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a native of the town of Apri or Aprus in Thrace, and before he was made patriarch he held a high ecclesiastical office at the court of the emperor Andronicus. He delivered a great number of homi lies at Constantinople, which created great sensa tion in their time, and sixty of which are said to be still extant in MS. But only two of them have been published by Grester (De Cruce^ ii. p. 1363, &c., and 1477, &c.), and the latter under the erroneous name of Philotheus. (Cave, Hist. Lit ii. p. 497, &c., ed. Lend.; Fabric. Bill. Graec. xi. p. 591, &c.) [L. S.]
CALECAS, MANUEL (Mwovfa KaArjW), a relative of Joannes Calecas, appears to have lived about A. d. 1360, as he combated the doctrines of Palamas. He is said to have been a monk of the Dominican order, and was the author of several works. Though he himself was a Greek, he wrote against the Greek church and in favour of that of Rome, for which he is, of course, highly praised by the adherents of the Roman church. The following list contains those of his works which are published : — 1. " Libri iv ad versus errores Graecorum de Processione Spiritus Sancti." The Greek original has not yet been printed, but a Latin translation was made at the command of Pope Martin V. by Ambrosius Carnaldulensis, and was edited with a commentary by P. Stenartius, Ingolstadt, 1616, 4to. A reprint of this translation is contained in the Biblioth. Patr. vol. xxvi. p, 382, &c,, ed, Lugdun. 2. " De Essentia et 'Operatione Dei" (irepl ovvias /ml e^e/rye/as), was edited with a Latin translation and notes by Com-befisius, in vol. ii. of his Auctarium Novissinmm Bibl. Patr. pp. 1—67, ed. Paris, 1672, fol. This work is directed against the heresies of Palamas, and was approved by the synod of Constantinople of 1351. 3. "De Fide deque Principiis Catholicae Fidei" (-rrepi Trurrecos ital Trepl tcoj> dpx^v rrjs KaOo-\iktjs Trur-retts). This work, consisting of ten chapters, was edited with a Latin translation and notes by Combefisms, in his Auctarium mentioned above, ii. pp. 174—285. The Latin translation is reprinted in the Bibl. Patr. vol. xxvi. p. 345, &c., ed. Lugdun. About ten more of his works are extant in MS., but have never yet been published. (Wharton's Append, to Cave's Hist. Lit. i. p. 55, &c.; Fabric. Biblioth. Graec. xi. p. 453, &c.) [L. S.]
CALENUS, the name of a family of the Fufia gens, is probably derived from Cales, a municipium in Campania ; but whether the name merely indicated the origin of the family, or whether the first who bore it, derived it from having conquered the town of Cales is uncertain, though the latter is the more probable supposition. The name occurs on a coin of the Fufia gens. (Eckhel, v. p. 220, &c.)
1. Q. fufius calenus is mentioned only by Cicero (Philip, viii. 4) as one who thought, that P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica was the greatest man in the republic, because he had delivered the state from the obnoxious Tib. Gracchus. From this sentiment it may "be inferred, that Fufius Calenus occupied a considerable portion of the public land.
2. Q. fufius Q. f. C. n. calenus, son of No. 1, was tribune of the plebs in b. c. 61, and patronized P. Clodius, whom he endeavoured to save from condemnation for his violation of the mysteries of the Bona Dea. With this view he proposed a law, that Clodius should not be tried by special judges, but by the ordinary court. This
bill was supported by Q. Hortensius, though thought it impossible that Clodius should be acquitted. However the law was passed, and Fufiug Calenus gained his end. In B. c. 59, he was elected praetor by the influence of Caesar, in whose cause he continued to be very active ever afterwards. In this year he carried a law, that each of the three classes of judges, senators, equites, and tribuni aerarii, should give their votes separately, so that it might always be seen in what way each of them voted. Being generally known as the tool of Caesar, he also shared in the hatred which the latter drew upon himself, and was accordingly treated, says Cicero (ad Att. ii. 18)? with contempt and hisses by all the good citizens.
In b. c. 52, Calenus is stated to have supported the Clodian party after Clodius had been murdered by Milo, and in the year following we find him as legate of Caesar in Gaul. On the outbreak of the civil war in b. c. 49, Calenus hastened in the month of March to meet Caesar at Brundusium, and on his journey thither he called upon Cicero at his Formian Villa, on which occasion he called Pompey a criminal, and charged the senate with levity and folly. (Cic. ad Att. ix. 5.) When Caesar afterwards went to Spain, Calenus again followed him as legate ; and after Caesar had gone to Epeirus, Calenus was sent to fetch over the remainder of the troops from Italy. But while he was crossing over from Epeirus to Italy with his empty ships, Bibulus captured most of them: Calenus himself escaped to the Italian coast and afterwards returned to Epeirus with Antony. Before the battle of Pharsalia Caesar sent him to Achaia, and there he took Delphi, Thebes, and Orchome-nos, and afterwards Athens, Megara, and Patrae. In b. c. 47, Caesar caused him to be raised to the consulship.
After the murder of Caesar, in b. c. 44, Calenus joined M. Antony, and during the transactions of the early part of b. c. 43, he defended Antony against Cicero. The speech which Dion Cassius (xlii. 1, &c.) puts into his mouth, does not, probably, contain much genuine matter, and is, perhaps, only an invention of the historian. After the war against Brutus and Cassius, Calenus served as the legate of M. Antony, and the legions of the latter were placed under his command in northern Italy. When the Perusinian war terminated, in b. c. 419 with the defeat of L. Antonius, Octavianus was anxious to get possession of the army of Calenus, which was stationed at the foot of the Alps; fortunately for Octavianus, Calenus just then died, and his son, who was a mere youth, surrendered the army to Octavianus without striking a blow. It is related by Appian (b. c. iv. 47), that during the proscription of (b. c. 43) the life of the great M. Terentius Varro was saved by Calenus, and it is not improbable that the letter of Varro to Fufius, which is still extant (Fracjm. p. 199. ed Bipont.) was addressed to our Q. Fufius Calenus. (Cic. ad Fain. v. 6, ad Att. i. 14, 15, xi. 15, 16 ; Schol. Bobiens. pp. 330, 235 ; Ascon. ad Milon. p. 43, ed. Orelli; Cic. Philip, viii. 4, &c.; Caes. B. G. viii. 39, B. C. iii. 8, 26, 55; Dion Cass. xxxviii. 8, xlii. 14, 55, xlviii. 10, 20; Appian, B. C. ii. 58, v. 3,12, 24, 33, 51, 61; comp. Orelli, Onom. Tull. ii. p. 259.)