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CALAMIS.

to have been called after her. (Klausen, Aeneas it. d. PenaL p. 1044, &c.) [L. S.]

CAIUS or GAIUS (Fa'tos). 1. The jurist. [GAius.]

2. A Platonic philosopher who is mentioned as an author by Porphyry ( Vit. Plot. 14), but of his writings nothing is known. Galen (vol. vi. p. 532, ed. Paris) states, that he heard the disciples of Cains, from which we must infer that Caius lived some time before Galen.

3. A Greek rhetorician of uncertain date. Sto-baeus has preserved the titles of, and given extracts from, six of his declamations. (Stobaeus, Florileg. vol. i. pp. 89, 266, vol. iii. pp. 3, 29, 56, &c., 104, 135, 305, &c.)

4. A presbyter of the church of Rome, who lived about a. d. 310. He was at a later time elected bishop of the gentiles, which probably means, that he received a commission as a missionary to some heathen people, and the power of superintending the churches that might be planted among them. (Phot. Cod. 48.) While he was yet at Rome he engaged in the celebrated disputation with Proclus, the champion of the Montanist heresy, and he sub­ sequently published the whole transaction in the form of a dialogue. (Euseb. H. E. ii. 25, iii. 23, vi. 20.) He also wrote a work against the heresy of Artemon, and a third work, called Aagvpivdos, appears likewise to have been directed against Artemon. (Euseb. //. E. v. 28 ; comp. Theodoret. //. E. iv. 21.) Caius is further called by Photius the author of a work ITepl r-rjs -rravros ov<rias, which some consider to be the same as the work Ilepl tov Tra^Tos, which is still extant, and is usually ascribed to Hippolytus. He denied the Epistle to the Hebrews to be the work of St. Paul, and accordingly counted only 13 genuine epistles of that apostle. (Cave, Hist. Lit. i. p. 65 ; Fabricius, BM. Grace, x. p. 693, &c.) [L. S.} CAIUS CAESAR. [caligula,] CALABER. [quintus smyrnaeus.] CALACTI'NUS. [caecilius calactinus.] . CA'LAMIS (KaAa^ts), a statuary and embosser, whose birth-place and age are not mentioned by any of the ancient authors. It is certain, however, that he was a contemporary of Phidias, for he executed a statue of Apollo Alexicacos, who was believed to have stopped the plague at Athens. (Paus. i. 3. § 3.) Besides he worked at a chariot, which Dinomenes, the son of Hiero. caused to be made by Onatas in memory of his father's victory at Olympia. (Paus. vi. 12. § 1, viii. 42. § 4.) This chariot was consecrated by Dinomenes after Hiero's death (b. c. 467), and the plague at Athens ceased b. c. 429. The 38 years between these two dates may therefore safely be taken as the time in which Calamis flourished. (Sillig, Cat. Art. s. v.} Calamis was one of the most diligent artists of all antiquity. He wrought statues in bronze, stone, gold, and ivory, and was, moreover, a celebrated embosser. (Plin. H. N. xxxiii. 12. s. 15, xxxvi. 4. s. 3.) Besides the Apollo Alexicacos, which was of metal (Sillig, Cat. Art- p. 117), there existed a marble statue of Apollo in the Servilian gardens in Rome (Plin. //. N. xxxvi. 4, 5), and a third bronze statue of Apollo, 30 cubits high, which Lucullus carried to Rome from the Illyrian town Apollonia. (Strab. vii. p. 319.) A beardless As- clepios in gold and ivory, a Nike, a Zeus Ammon (consecrated by Pindar at Thebes), a Dionysos, an Aphrodite, an Alcmene, and a Sosandra, are men-

CALAS.

tioried as works of Calamis. Besides the statues of gods and mortals he also represented animals, especially horses, for which he was very celebrated. (Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 8. s. 19.) Cicero gives the following opinion of the style of Calamis, which was probably borrowed from the Greek authors :—• "Quis enim eorum, qui haec minora animadver-tunt, non intelligit, Canachi signa rigidiora esse, quam ut imitentur veritatem ? Calamidis dura ilia quidem, sed tamen molliora quam Canachi, nondum Myronis satis ad veritatem adducta." (Brut. 18; comp. Quintil. xii. 10.) [W. L]

CALAMITES (KaAa^mjs), an Attic hero, who is mentioned only by Demosthenes (Ue Co- ron. p. 270), and is otherwise entirely unknown. Comp. Plesych. and Suid. s. v. KaAa/xmjs.) The commentators on Demosthenes have endeavoured in various ways to gain a definite notion of Calamites: some think that Calamites is a false reading for Cyamites, and others that the name is a mere epi­ thet, and that larpos is understood. According to the latter view, Calamites would be a hero of the art of surgery, or a being well skilled in handling the KaAa,u,os or reed which was used in dressing fractured arms and legs. Others again find in Calamites the patron of the art of writing and of writing masters. (Comp. Jahn, JaJirb. fur Philol. u.Paecl for 1838.) [L. S.]

CALANUS (KccAaz/os), one of the so-called gymnosophists of India, who followed the Mace­ donian army from Taxila at the desire of Alexander the Great; but when he was taken ill afterwards, he refused to change his mode of living, and in order to get rid of the sufferings of human life altogether, he solemnly burnt himself on a pyre in the presence of the whole Macedonian army, without evincing any symptom of pain. (Arrian, Anal. vii. 2, &c.; Aelian, V. H. ii. 4], v. 6; Plut. Alex. 69; Strab. xv. p. 686; Diod. xvii. 107; Athen. x. p. 437; Lucian, De M. Pereg. 25 ; Cic. Tusc. ii. 22, De Divinat. i. 22, 30 ; Val. Max. i. 8, Ext. 10.) His real name was, according to Plutarch (A lex. 65), Sphines, and he received the name Calanus among the Greeks, because in saluting persons he used the form /caAe instead of the Greek %a?pe. What Plutarch here calls /caAe is probably the Sanscrit form calydna^ which is commonly used in addressing a person, and signi­ fies good, just, or distinguished. Josephus (c. Apion. i. p. 484) states, that all the Indian philo­ sophers were called KaAaz/of, but this statement is without any foundation, and is probably a mere invention. (Lassen, in the Rhein. Museum, fur Philol. i. p. 176.) [L. S.]

GALAS or CALLAS (KaAas, KaAAas). 1. Son of the traitor Harpalus of Elimiotis, and first cousin to Antigonus, king of Asia, held a command in the army which Philip sent into Asia under Parmenion and Attalus, b. c. 336, to further his cause among the Greek cities there. In b. c. 335, Galas was defeated in a battle in the Troad by Memnon, the Rhodian, but took refuge in Rhaeteum. (Diod. xvi. 91, xvii. 7.) At the battle of the Granicus, B. c. 334, he led the Thessalian cavalry in Alex­ander's army, and was appointed by him in the same year to the satrapy of the Lesser or Helles-poritine Phrygia, to which Paphlagonia was soon after added. (Arr. Anab. i. p. 14, e., ii. p. 31, d.; Curt. iii. 1. §24; Diod. xvii. 17.) After this we do not hear of Galas : it would seem, how­ever, that he. died before the treason arid flight of

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