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18. C. julius caesar, the dictator, married

1. Cossutia.

2. Cornelia.

3. Pompeia.

4. Calpurnia.


19. Julia major, married

1. L. Pinarius.

2. Q. Pedius.

20. Julia minor, married M. Atius Balbus.

21. Julia, married 22. Caesarion, a son Cn. Pompeius. by Cleopatra.

1. sex. julius caesar, praetor b. c. 208, obtained the province of Sicily. On his return he was one of the ambassadors sent to the consul T. Quinctius Crispinus, after the death of the other consul, Marcellus, to tell him to name a dictator, if he could not himself come to Rome to hold the comitia. (Liv. xxvii. 21, 22, 29.)

2. L. julius caesar, grandfather of No. 6, as we learn from the Capitoline Fasti.

3. L. julius (caesar), probably son of No. 2, praetor b. c. 183, had the province of Gallia Cis-alpina, and was commanded to prevent the Trans­alpine Gauls, who had come into Italy, from build­ing the town of Aquileia, which they had com­menced. (Liv. xxxix. 45.)

4. sex. julius caesar, probably son of No. 2, tribune of the soldiers, b. c. 181, in the army of the proconsul L. Aemilius Paullus. In 170 he was sent, as a legate, with C. Sempronius Blaesus to restore Abdera to liberty. (Liv. xl. 27, xliii. 4.)

5. L. julius (caesar), probably son of No. 3, praetor b. c. 166. (Liv. xlv. 44.)

6. sex. julius sex. f. L. n. caesar, curale aedile b. c. 165, exhibited, in conjunction with his colleague Cn. Cornelius Dolabella, the Hecyra of Terence at the Megalesian games. (Titul. Hecyr. Ter.) He was consul in 157 with L. Aurelius Orestes. (Plin. H. N. xxxiii. 3. s. 17; Polyb. xxxii. 20 ; .Fast. Capit.)

7. sex. julius caesar, probably son of No. 6, praetor urbanus in b. c. 123. (Cic. pro Dom. 53 ; ad Her. ii. 13.)

8. L. julius caesar, son of No. 6, and father of No. 9 (Fast. Cap.), married Popillia, who had been previously married to Q. Catulus.

9. L. julius L. f. sex. n. caesar, called erroneously by Appian, Sex. Julius Caesar, son of No. 8, was consul, b. c. 90, with P. Rutilius Lupus, when the Social war broke out. His legates in this war were Sulla, Crassus, P. Lentulus, T. Di-dius, and M. Marcellus. He commenced the cam­paign by attacking the Samnites, but was defeated by their general, Vettius Cato, and fled to Aeser-nia, which still remained faithful to the Romans. Having, however, received a reinforcement of Gal­lic and Numidian auxiliaries, he was soon able to face the enemy again, and pitched his camp near Acerrae in Campania, which was besieged by the enemy. Here a great number of the Numidians deserted, and Caesar, suspecting the fidelity of the remainder, sent them back to Africa. Encouraged by this defection, Papius Motulus, the general of the enemy, proceeded to attack Caesar's camp, but was repulsed with a loss of 6000 men. This vic-

23. Sex. Julius Caesar, Flam. Quirin.

24. Sex. Julius Caesar, died b. c. 46.

tory caused great joy at Rome ; and the citizens ^aid aside the military cloaks (saga\ which they had assumed at the beginning of the war. It was not followed, however, by any important results : on the contrary, Caesar withdrew from Acerrae almost immediately afterwards, without having relieved the town. Meantime, the other consul, Rutilius Lupus, had been defeated and slain in battle by Vettius Cato; and Caesar himself, while marching to Acerrae to make another attempt to raise the siege of the town, was defeated with great loss by Marius Egnatius. (Appian, B. C. i. 40—42, 45; Veil. Pat. ii. 15; Liv. Epit. 73; Plin. H. N. ii. 29. s. 30; Obsequ. c. 115 • Cic. de

Div. i. 2, pro Font. 15, pro Plane. 21 ; Flor. iii. 18. § 12; Oros. v. 18.)

These disasters, the fear of a war with Mithri-dates, and apprehension of a revolt of all the allies, induced Caesar to bring forward a law for granting the citizenship to the Latins and the allies which had remained faithful. (Lex Julia de Civitate.) It appears, however, to have contained a provision, giving each allied state the opportunity of accept­ing what was offered them; and many preferred their original condition as federate states to incur­ring the obligations and responsibilities of Roman citizens. (Cic. pro Balb. 8; Veil. Pat. ii. 16; Gell. iv. 4.)

In the following year, b. c. 89, Caesar's com­mand was prolonged. He gained a considerable victory over the enemy, and afterwards proceeded to besiege Asculum, before which he died of dis­ease, according to the statement of Appian. (B. O. i. 48.) This, however, is clearly a mistake: he probably was obliged to leave the army in conse­quence of serious illness, and was succeeded in the command by C. Baebius. He was censor in the same year with P. Licinius Crassus (Cic. pro Arch. 5 ; Plin. H. N. xiii. 3. s. 5, xiv. 14. s. 16 ; Festus, s. v. Referri), and was engaged in carrying into effect his own law and that of Silvanus and Carbo, passed in this year, for conferring the citizenship upon some of the other Italian allies. These citi­zens were enrolled in eight or ten new tribes, which were to vote after the thirty-five old ones. (Ap­pian, B. C. i. 49 ; Veil. Pat. ii. 20.)

On the breaking out of the civil war in B. c. 87, L. Caesar and his brother Caius, who were opposed to Marius and China, were killed by Fimbria. (Appian, B. C. i. 72 ; Flor. iii. 21. § 14 ; Ascon. in Scaur, p. 24, ed. Orelli; Val. Max. ix. 2. § 2; Cic. de Orat. iii. 3, Tuscul. v. 19.)

10. C. julius L. f. sex. n. caesar strabo vopiscus (comp. Cic. Phil. xi. 5; Varro, R. R. i.

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