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for avenging his own and his country's wrongs. In the capacity of Tribunns Celerum, which office he then held, and which bore the same relation to the royal power as that of the Magister Equitum did to the dictatorship, he summoned the people, obtained the banishment of the Tarquins, and was elected consul with L. Tarquinius Collatinus in the comitia centuriata. Resolved to maintain the freedom of the infant republic, he loved his country better than his children, and accordingly put to death his two sons, when they were detected in a conspiracy with several other of the young Roman nobles, for the purpose of restoring the Tarquins. He moreover compelled his colleague, L. Tarquinius Collatinus, to resign his consulship and leave the city, that none of the hated family might remain in Rome. And when the people of Veil and Tar-quinii attempted to bring Tarquin back by force of arms, Brutus marched against them, and, fighting with Aruns, the son of Tarquin, he and Aruns both fell, pierced by each other's spears. The matrons mourned for Brutus a year, and a bronze statue was erected to him on the capitol, with a drawn sword in his hand. (Liv. i. 56—60, ii. 1— 7 ; Dionys. iv. 67—85, v. 1 —18; Macrob. ii. 16 ; l)ion. Cass. xlii. 45 ; Pint. Brut. 1.)
The contradictions and chronological impossibilities in this account have been pointed out by Niebuhr. (i. p. 511.) Thus, for instance, the last Tarquin is said to have reigned only twenty-five
years, and yet Brutus is represented as a child at
the beginning of his reign, and the father of young men at the close of it. Again, the tale of his idiocy is irreconcileable with his holding the responsible office of Tribimus Celerum. That he did hold this office seems to be an historical fact (Pompon, de Orig. Juris, Dig. 1. tit. 2. s. 2. § 15) ; and the story of his idiocy probably arose from his surname, which may, however, as we have seen, have had a very different meaning originally.
4. L. junius brutus, one of the leaders of the plebeians in their secession to the Sacred Mount, b. c. 494, is represented by Dionysius as a plebeian, who took the surname of Brutus, that his name might be exactly the same as the first consul's. He was, according to the same authority, chosen one of the first tribunes of the plebs in this year, and also plebeian aedile in the year that Coriolanus was brought to trial. (Dionys. vi. 70, &c., 87—89, vii. 14, 26.) This Brutus is not mentioned by any ancient writer except Dionysius, and Plutarch (Coriol. 7) who copies from him. The old reading in Asconius (in Cornel, p. 76, ed. Orelli) made L. Junius C. F. Paterculus one of the first tribunes ; but Junius was an alteration made by Manutius, and Patercuius nowhere occurs as a cognomen of the Junia gens : the true reading is Albinius. [albinius.] Niebuhr supposes (i. p. 617) that this L. Junius Brutus of Dionysius is an entirely fictitious person.
5. D. junius brutus scaeva, magister equitum to the dictator Q. Publilius Philo, b. c. 339, and plebeian consul in 325 with the patrician L. Furius Camillus. He carried on war in his consulship against the Vestini, whom he conquered in battle, after a hard contest, and took two of
their towns, Cutina and Cingilia. (Liv. via 12S 29 ; Diod. xviii. 2.)
6. D. junius D. f. brutus scaeva, legate b. c. 293 in the army of the consul Sp. Carvilius Maximus, and consul in 292. (Liv. x. 43, 47.) In his consulship he conquered the Faliscans : Sp. Carvilius, the consul of the preceding year, served under him as legate by command of the senate. (Zonar. viii. 1.)
7. D. junius brutus, probably a son of the preceding, exhibited, in conjunction with his brother Marcus, the first gladiatorial combat at Rome in the Forum Boarium, at his father's funeral in b. c. 264. (Liv. Epit. 16 ; Val. Max. ii. 4. § 7.)
9. M. junius brutus, tribune of the plebs, b. c. 195, endeavoured with his colleague P. Junius Brutus to prevent the repeal of the Oppia lex, which restrained the expenses of women. He was praetor in 191, and had the jurisdiction in the city, while his colleagues obtained the provinces. During his praetorship he dedicated the temple of the Great Idaean Mother, on which occasion the Megalesian games were performed for the first time. (Diet, of Ant. s. v. Megalesia.} He was one of the ambassadors sent into Asia in 189, to settle the terms of peace with Antiochus the Great. (Liv. xxxiv. 1; Val. Max. ix. 1. § 3 ; Liv. xxxv. 24, xxxvi. 2, 36, xxxvii. 55.) This M, Junius Brutus mav be the same as No. 12, who was con-
sul in 178.
10. P. junius brutus, probably the brother of the preceding, was his colleague in the tribunate, b. c. 195. He was curule aedile in 192, and praetor in 190 ; in tne latter office he had the province of Etruria, where he remained as propraetor in the following year, 189. From thence he was sent by the senate into Further Spain, which was decreed to him as a province. (Liv. xxxiv. 1; Val. Max. ix. 1. § 3 ; Liv. xxxv. 41, xxxvi. 45, xxxvii. 2, 50, 57.)
The annexed stemma exhibits the probable family connexion of the following persons, Nos» 12 to 17 inclusive.
12. M. junius M. p. L. n. brutus, the son of No. 9, unless he is the same person, was consul b. c. 178, and had the conduct of the war against the Istri, whom he subdued in the following year, and compelled them to submit to the Romans. (Liv. xl. 59, xli. 9, 14, 15 ; Obsequ. 62.) He was one of the ambassadors sent into Asia in 171, to exhort the allies to assist the Romans in their war against Perseus. He was an unsuccessful candidate for the censorship in 169. (Liv. xlii. 45, xliii. 16.)