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allowed to bring wine with her, a vessel filled with wine, stood in the room, and from it the women made their libations and drank. This wine, how­ ever, was called milk, and the vessel containing it mellarium, so that the name of wine was avoided altogether. The solemnity commenced with a sa­ crifice called damium (the priestess who performed bore the name damiatrix, and the goddess damia; Fest. s. v. Damium, who however gives an absurd account of these names). One might suppose that the sacrifice consisted of a chamois (dama) or some kind of substitute for a chamois ; but Pliny (H.N. x. 77) seems to suggest, that the sacrifice consisted of hens of various colours, except black ones. After this sacrifice, the women began to perform Bacchic dances, and to drink of the wine prepared for them. (Juv. vi. 314.) The goddess herself was believed to have set the example for this ; for, while yet on earth, she was said to have intoxicated herself by emptying a large vessel of wine, whereupon Faunus killed her with a myrtle staff, but afterwards raised her to the rank of a goddess. (Varr. ap. Lactant. I. c.; Arnob. adv. Gent. v. 18 ; Plut. Quaest. Rom. 20.) This whole ceremony took place at night, whence it is usually called sacrum opertum, or sacra opertanea. (Cic. de Legg. ii. 9, ad Att. i. 13.) Fauna was also regarded as a goddess possessed of healing powers, as might be inferred from the ser­ pents being part of her worship ; but we know that various kinds of medicinal herbs were sold in her temple, and bought largely by the poorer classes. (Macrob., Plut., Arnob. II. cc.) Greek writers, in their usual way, identify the Bona Dea with some Greek divinity, such as Semele, Medeia, Hecate, or Persephone. The Angitia of the Mar- sians seems to have been the same goddess with them as the Bona Dea with the Romans. (angi­ tia ; comp. Hartung, Die Relit}, der Rom. ii. p. 19,5, &c.) [L. S.]

BONIFACIUS, a Roman general, tribunus, and comes in the province of Africa under Valen-tinian III. In the early part of his career he was distinguished for his prompt administration of jus­tice, and also for his activity against the barbarians, as at Massilia in a. d. 413 against the Gothic king Ataulphus (Olymp. ap.Pkot. p. 59, Bekk.), and in 422 against the Vandals in Spain. (Prosper.) His high character procured for him the friendship of Augustin, whom he consulted with regard to enforcing the imperial laws against the Donatists, and to scruples which he entertained against con­tinuing military pursuits, and (on the death of his wife) even against remaining in the world at all. These scruples Augustin wisely allayed, only recommending to him resolutions, which he adopted, of confining himself to defensive warfare against the barbarians, and of leading a single life. (Augustin. Ep. 185, 189.) (a. d. 417, 418.)

The abandonment of this last resolution, in his second marriage with a rich Arian lady of the name of Pelagia, seems to have exercised a perni­cious influence over his general character. Al­though he so far maintained his own religious convictions as to insist on the previous conversion of his wife, yet he so far gave them up as to allow his child to receive Arian baptism; and as the first breach of even slight scruples may prepare a conscience naturally tender for the commission of actual crimes, he is afterwards reported to have lived with concu­bines. (Augustin. Ep. 220.) (a. d. 424.) Whilst in the unsettled state consequent on this change of life,


he was, in 427, entrapped by his rival Ae'tius [AETius] into the belief that the empress Placidia was bent on his destruction; and under this im­pression he yielded to the temptation of inviting Genseric, king of the Vandals, to settle in Africa. (Procop. Bell. Vand. i. 4.) Bitterly reproached for his crime by Augustin (Ep. 220), and discovering the fraud when it was too late, he took arms against Genseric, but was driven by him into Hippo (a. d. 430), and thence, after a year's siege, during which he witnessed the death of his friend, Augustin, he escaped with a great part of the inhabitants to Italy, where he was restored to the favour of Pla­cidia, and even enjoyed the almost unexampled honour of having coins struck in honour of his imaginary victories, with his own head on the re­verse. Ae'tius, however, challenged him to single combat, shortly after which, either by a wound from the longer spear of his adversary (Marcellinus in anno) or from illness (Prosper), he expired, ex­pressing his forgiveness to Ae'tius, and advising his widow to marry him. (a. d. 432.)

His career is singularly and exactly the reverse of that of his rival, Ae'tius. Uniting true Roman courage and love of justice with true Christian piet}r, he yet by one fatal step brought on his church and country the most severe calamities which it had been in the power of any of the barbarian invaders to inflict on either of them.

The authorities for his life are Procopius, Bell. Vand. i. 3, 4; Olymp. ap. Phot. pp. 59, 62; Augustin. Ep. 185 (or 50), 189 (or 95), 220 (or 70); and, of modern writers, Gibbon, c. 33; at greater length, Tillemont, Mem. Eccl. xiii. pp. 712 —886, in which last (note 77) is a discussion on. a correspondence of sixteen smaller letters, falsely ascribed to him and Augustin. [A. P. S.]

BONOSUS, was born in Spain; his ancestors were from Britain and Gaul. The son of a humble schoolmaster, he displayed a marked inaptitude for literary pursuits; but, having entered the army, gradually rose to high military rank, and was in­ debted for much of his success in life to the singular faculty which he possessed of being able to drink to excess (bibit quantum hominum nemo] without be­ coming intoxicated or losing his self-command. Aurelian, resolving to take advantage of this na­ tural gift, kept him near his person, in order that when ambassadors arrived from barbarian tribes, they might be tempted to deep potations by Bo- nosus, and so led to betray the secrets of their mission. In pursuance of this plan, the emperor caused him to wed Hunila, a damsel of the noblest blood among the Goths, in hopes of gaining early information of the schemes in agitation among her kinsmen, which they were apt to divulge when under the influence of wine. How the husband- spy discharged his task we are not told; but we find him at a subsequent period in the command of troops upon the Rhaetian frontier, and afterwards stationed on the Rhine. The Germans having succeeded in destroying certain Roman vessels in consequence of some carelessness or breach of duty on his part, in order to avoid immediate punish­ ment, he prevailed upon his soldiers to proclaim him emperor. After a long and severe struggle, he was vanquished by Probus, and hanged himself. The conqueror magnanimously spared his two sons and pensioned his widow. No medals are extant except those published by Goltzius, which are spurious. (Vopiscus, Vit. Bonos.) J.W. R.j

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