Scanned text contains errors.
cannot always be determined. The ecclesiastical constitutions are derived from the common canoni cal collections. This compilation, as the numerous extant manuscripts prove, became very popular among ecclesiastics. The preface to the Syntagma Alphabeticum of Blastares contains some historical particulars, mingled with many errors, concerning the canon and imperial law. As an example of .the errors, it may be stated that the formation of Justinian's Digest and Code is attributed to Hadrian. In most MSS. a small collection of minor works, probably due to Blastares, is ap pended to the Syntagma. As to unpublished works of Blastares in MS., see Fabric. Bibl. Grace. xii. p. 205. A portion of the Syntagma (part of B and T), which was probably found copied in a detached form, is printed in Leunclav. Jur. Graeco- Rom. vol. i. lib. viii.; but the only complete edition of the work is that which is given by Beveridge in his Synodicon, vol. ii. part. 2. The "matrimonial questions" of Blastares, printed in Leunclav. Jur. Graeco-Rom., are often enumerated as a distinct work from the Syntagma, but in reality they come under the head Td,u,os. At the end of the Pere Goar's edition of Codinus is a treatise, written in popular verses (ircXiriKol <rr:%oi), concerning the offices of the Palace of Constantinople, by Matthaeus, monk, s-uttjs-, and physician. The author may possibly be no other than Blastares. (Biener, GescJi. der Now. pp.218—222 ; Walter, KirchenrecM. § 79.) [J. T. G.]
BLEMMIDAS. [nicephorus blemmidas.]
BLEPAEUS (BAeTrcuos), a rich banker at Athens in the time of Demosthenes, who was also mentioned in one of the comedies of Alexis. (Dem. c. Meid. p. 583.17, c.Boeot. de Dot. p. 1023. 19; Athen. vi. p. 241, b.)
BLESAMIUS, a Galatian, a friend and minister of Deiotarus, by whom he was sent as ambassador to Rome, where he was when Cicero defended his master, b.c. 45. (Cic. pro Deiot. 12, 14, 15.) Blesamius was also in Rome in the following year, 44. (Cic. ad Ait. xvi. 3.)
BLOSIUS or BLO'SSIUS, the name of a noble family in Campania.
2. blosii, two brothers in Capua, were the ringleaders in an attempted revolt of Capua from the Romans in b. c. 210 ; but the design was discovered, and the Blosii and their associates put to death. (Liv. xxvii. 3.)
3. C. blosius, of Cumae, a Itospes of Scaevola's family, was an intimate friend of Ti. Gracchus, whom he is said to have urged on to bring forward his agrarian law. After the death of Ti. Gracchus he was accused before the consuls in b. c. 132, on account of his participation in the schemes of Gracchus, and fearing the issue he fled to Aristo-nicus, king of Pergamus, who was then at war with the Romans. When Aristonicus was conquered shortly afterwards, Blosius put an end to his own life for fear of falling into the hands of the Romans. Blosius had paid considerable attention to the study of philosophy, and was a disciple of
Antipater of Tarsus. (Cic. de Amic. 11, de Leg. Agr. ii. 34 ; Val. Max. iv. 7. § 1; Pint. Ti GraccL 8, 17, 20.)
BOADICEA (some MSS. of Tacitus have Bou-dicea^ Boodicia or Voadiea, and Dion Cassius calls her BowSouf/ca), was the wife of Prasutagus, king of the Iceni, a tribe inhabiting the eastern coast of Britain. Her husband, who died about A. d. 60 or 61, made his two daughters and the emperor Nero the heirs of his private property, hoping thereby to protect his kingdom and his family from the oppression and the rapacity of the Romans stationed in Britain. But these expectations were not realized; for Boadicea, who succeeded him, saw her kingdom and her house robbed and plundered by the Roman soldiers, as if they had been in a country conquered by force of arms. The queen herself was maltreated even with blows, and Romans ravished her two daughters. The most distinguished among the Iceni were deprived of their property, and the relatives of the late king treated as slaves. These outrages were committed by Roman soldiers and veterans under the connivance of their officers, who not only took no measures to stop their proceedings, but Catus De-cianus was the most notorious of all by his extortion and avarice. At last, in a. d 62, Boadicea, a woman of manly spirit and undaunted courage, was roused to revenge. She induced the Iceni to take up arms against their oppressors, and also prevailed upon the Trinobantes and other neighbouring tribes to join them. While the legate Paulinus Suetonius was absent on an expedition to the island of Mona, Camalodunum, a recently established colony of veterans, was attacked by the Britons. The colony solicited the aid of Catus Decianus, who however was unable to send them more than 200 men, and these had not even regular arms. Camalodunum was taken and destroyed by fire, and the soldiers, who took refuge in a temple which formed the arx of the place, were besieged for two days, and then made prisoners. Petilius Cerealis, the legate of the ninth legion, who was advancing to relieve Camalodunum, was met by the Britons, and, after the loss of his infantry, escaped with the cavalry to his fortified camp. Catus Decianus, who in reality bore all the guilt, made his escape to Gaul; but Suetonius Paulinus, who had been informed of what was going on, had returned by this time, and forced his wa}r through the midst of the enemies as far as the colony of Londinium. As soon as he had left it, it was taken by the Britons, and the numiciphmi of Ve-rulamium soon after experienced the same fate •. in these places nearly 70,000 Romans and Roman allies were slain with cruel tortures. Suetonius saw that a battle could no longer be deferred. His forces consisted of only about 10,000 men, while those of the Britons under Boadicea are said to have amounted to 230,000. On the day of the battle, the queen rode in a chariot with her two daughters before her, and commanded her army in person. She harangued her soldiers, reminded them of the wrongs inflicted upon Britain b}r the Romans, and roused their courage against the common enemy. But the Britons were conquered by the greater military skill and the favourable position of the Romans. About 80,000 Britons are said to have fallen on that day, and the Romans to have lost no more than 400. Boadicea would not survive this irreparable loss., and put an end to