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nevertheless advanced against Messallinus, and gained a victory over him ; but being shortly after defeated in his turn, he fled to his Breucian name­sake. The two Batos now united their forces, and took possession of the mountain Alma, near Sir-mium, where they remained on the defensive, and maintained themselves against the attacks of Cae-cina Severus. But after the latter had been recalled to Moesia by the ravages of the tribes bordering upon his province, the Batos, who had now no enemy to oppose them, since Tiberius and Messal-lina were remaining at Siscia, left their position and induced many of the neighbouring tribes to join them. They undertook predatory incursions on every side, and carefully avoided an engagement with Tiberius. At the commencement of winter, they marched into Macedonia, but here they were defeated by the Thracian Rhymetalces and his bro­ther Rascyporis, allies of the Romans.

The continuance of the war alarmed Augustus, who thought that it was purposely prolonged by Tiberius. Germanicus was accordingly sent into the disturbed districts in the following year (a. d. 7) with a fresh army, but Tiberius, it appears, was not recalled, as he did not return to Rome till two years later. In the campaign of this year the Ro­mans accomplished very little ; the chief advantage which they gained was the conquest by Germa­nicus of the Mazaei, a Pannonian people. Next year (a. d. 8), the Pannonians and Dalmatians were afflicted by famine and pestilence, in conse­quence of which, and of having suffered some re­verses, they concluded a peace with the Romans. When the Dalmatian Bato appeared before Tiberius to treat respecting the peace, and was asked why he had rebelled, he replied, " You are the cause. Instead of sending dogs and shepherds to take care of your flocks, you send wolves."

This peace was of short duration. The Breucian Bato had betrayed to the Romans Pinnes or Pin-netes, one of the principal Pannonian chiefs, and had obtained in consequence the sovereignty of the Breucians. The Dalmatian Bato, suspecting the designs of the Breucian, made war upon the latter, took him prisoner, and put him to death. This led to a fresh war with the Romans. Many of the Pannonians joined the revolt, but Silvanus Plau-tius subdued the Breucians and several other tribes; and Bato, seeing no hope of success in Pannonia, laid waste the country and retired into Dalmatia.

At the beginning of the following year (a. d. ,9), after the winter, Tiberius returned to Rome, while Germanicus remained in Dalmatia. But as the war was still protracted, Augustus resolved to make a vigorous effort to bring it to a conclusion. Tibe­rius was sent back to the army, which was now divided into three parts, one under the command of Silvanus, the second under M. Lepidus, and the third under Tiberius and Germanicus, all of whom prosecuted the war with the utmost vigour in different directions. Tiberius and Germanicus marched against Bato, who at length took refuge in a very strong fort, called Anderion or Andete-rion, near Salonae. Before this place the Romans remained for some time, unable to obtain possession of it. Bato, however, mistrusting the issue, en­deavoured to persuade his men to enter into nego-ciations with Tiberius; but, as they refused, he abandoned them and went into concealment. The Romans eventually took the fort and subdued .the greater part of Dalmatia ; whereupon Bato


offered to surrender himself to Tiberius upon pro­mise of pardon. This was promised, and Bato accompanied Tiberius to Rome, where he was the chief object of attraction in the triumph. Tiberius, however, kept his word. He sent Bato to Ravenna laden with presents, which were given him, ac­cording to Suetonius, because he had on one occasion allowed Tiberius to escape, when he was shut up with his army in disadvantageous ground. (Dion Cass. Iv. 29—34, Ivi. 1,10—16 ; Veil. Pat. ii. 110—114 ; Suet. Tib. 9, 16, 20; Ov. ex Pont. ii. 1. 46.)

BATON (bcitwj/), of Sinope, a Greek rhetori­cian and historian, who lived subsequently to Aratus of Sicyon. (Plut. Agis, 15.) The follow­ing works of his are mentioned by the ancient writers: — 1. Commentaries on Persian affairs. (UepcriKd, Strab. xii. p. 546.) 2. On the tyrants of Ephesus. (Athen. vii. p. 289, c.; comp. Suidas, s.v. UvOayopas Etyecrtos.") 3. On Thessaly and Haemonia. (Athen, xiv. p. 639, d. e.) 4. On the tyranny of Hieronymus. (Athen. vi. p. 251, e.) 5. On the poet Ion. (Athen. x. p. 436, f.) 6. A history of Attica. (Schol. ad Find. Isth. iv. 104, where Bockh reads Bdrow instead of Bares.)

BATON (Barw*/), an Athenian comic poet of the new comedy, flourished about 280 B. c. We have fragments of the following comedies by him: AircoAos or AtrcoAot, Eue^ercu, Av$po<povos9 2f^- stairaTwv. His plays appear to have been chiefly designed to ridicule the philosophers of the day. His name is incorrectly written in some passages of the ancient authors, Barros, Barrwv, Ba0coz>. (Plut. de Am. et Adul. p. 55 ; Suidas, s. v.; Eudoc. p. 93; Phot. Cod. 167; Stobaeus, Florileg. xcviii. 18; Athen. xiv. p. 662, c., iv. p. 163, b., vii. p. 279, c., xv. p. 678, f.) [P. S.]

BATRACHUS (Barpax0*)? a Lacedaemonian sculptor and architect of the time of Augustus. Pliny (H. N. xxxvi. 5. s. 14) relates, that Batra- chus and Sauras (Frog and Lizard), who were both very rich, built at their own expense two temples in Rome, one to Jupiter and the other to Juno, hoping they would be allowed to put their names in the inscription of the temples (inscriptionem sperantes}. But being denied this, they made the figures of a frog and a lizard in the convolutions of the Ionic capitals (in columnarum spiris, comp. Thiersch, Epoch. Anm. p. 96.) That this tale is a mere fable founded on nothing but the appear­ ance of the two figures on the columns, scarcely needs to be remarked. [W. I.]

BATTARUS, a name which repeatedly occurs in the ancient poem "Dirae," or imprecations, as­cribed to Virgil or the grammarian Valerius Cato, and respecting the meaning of which the commen­tators on this poem have entertained the most op­posite opinions. Some have thought it to be the name of some locality, a tree, a river, a grove, or a hill, and the like; while others, and apparently with more reason, have considered it to be the name of a person. But those who entertain this latter opinion are again divided in regard to the person that may be meant. Some believe Battarus to be the name of the person who had taken pos­session by force of the estates, the loss of which the author of the "Dirae" laments, and against whom, therefore, the imprecations are directed. Wernsdorf believes thai it is only a fictitious name, and is meant to designate some satiric poet, perhaps Callimachus ; others imagine that Battarus

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