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"Chalcedon, and afterwards spread the tenets of Eutyches through Syria and Armenia, about a. d. 460. (Asseman, BibliotJi. Orient, ii. pp. 1-10, and preliminary Dissertation, iii. pt. 1. p. 66.) [P.S.]
BARTHOLOMAEUS (Bap0oA0jua?os), one of the twelve apostles of our Lord. Eusebius (PL E. v. 10) informs us, that when Pantaenus visited the Indians, he found in their possession a Hebrew Gospel of Matthew, which their fathers had re ceived from Bartholomew. The story is confirmed by Jerome, who relates that this Hebrew Gospel was brought to Alexandria by Pantaenus. It is not very easy to determine who these Indians were; but Mosheim and Neander, who identify them with the inhabitants of Arabia Felix, are probably in the right. The time, place, and man ner of the death of Bartholomew are altogether uncertain. There was an apocryphal gospel falsely attributed to him, which is condemned by Pope Gelasius in his decree de Libris Apocryphis. (Tille- mont, Memoires, <3[c. vol. i. pp. 387—389, 642— 645. Ed. sec. ; Mosheim, de Rebus Ckristianorum, Sfc. p. 205, &c.; Neander, All gamine GfescMchte, fc. i. p. 113.) [J. M.M.]
BARSAENTES (Bapo-a&TTjs), or BARZAEN-TUS (Bapfaei'To:?), satrap of the Arachoti and Drang-ae, was present at the battle of Guagamela, B. c. 331, and after the defeat of the Persian army conspired with Bessus against Dareius. He was one of those who mortally wounded the Persian king, when Alexander was in pursuit of him ; and after this he fled to India, where, however, he was seized by the inhabitants and delivered up to Alexander, who put him to death. (Arrian, Anab. iii. 8, 21, 25 ; Diod. xvii. 74 ; Curt. vi. 6, viii. 13.)
BARYAXES (Bapw^s), a Mede, who assumed the sovereignty during Alexander's absence in India, but was seized by Atropates, the satrap of Media, and put to death by Alexander, B. c. 325. (Arrian, Anab. vi. 29.)
2. Appointed satrap of the Parthyaei by Bessus, b. c. 330, afterwards fell into the power of Alexander. (Arrian, Anab. iv. 7.)
BAS (Bas), king of Bithynia, reigned fifty years, from B. c. 376 to 326, and died at the age of 71. He succeeded his father Boteiras, and was himself succeeded by his own son Zipoetes. He defeated Calantus, the general of Alexander, and maintained the independence of Bithynia. (Mem-non, c. 20, ed. Orelli.)
BASILEIDES (Bao-tAe^s). 1. A Greek grammarian, who wrote a work on the Dialect of Homer (irept Ae£ecos 'OjUTjpi/ojs), of which an epitome was made by Cratinus. Both works are lost. (Etymol. Mag. s.v. Apt^rjAos.)
2. Of Scythopolis, a Stoic philosopher mentioned by Eusebius (Chron. Arm. p. 384, ed. Zohrab and Mai) and Syncellus (p. 351, b.) as flourishing under Antoninus Pius, and as the teacher of Verus Caesar.
3. An Epicurean philosopher, the successor of Dionysius. (Diog. Laert. x. 25.)
4. Of Alexandria, was one of the earliest and most eminent leaders of the Gnostics. The time when he lived is not ascertained with certainty, but it was probably about 120 a. d. He professed to have received .from Glaucias, a disciple of St. Peter, the
esoteric doctrine of that apostle. (Clem. Alex./Stfnwz. vii. p. 765, ed. Potter.) No other Christian writer makes any mention of Glaucias. Basileides was the disciple of Menander and the fellow-disciple of Sattirninus. He is said to have spent some time at Antioch with Saturmnus, when the latter was commencing his heretical teaching, and then to have proceeded to Persia, where he sowed the seeds of Gnosticism, which ripened under Manes. Thence he returned to Egypt, and publicly taught his heretical doctrines at Alexandria. He appears to have lived till after the accession of Antoninus Pius in 138 a. d. He made additions to the doctrines of Menander and Saturninus. A complete account of his system of theology and cosmogony is given by Mosheim (Eccles. Hist. bk. i. pt. ii. c. 5. §§ 11-13, and de Reb. Christ, ante Constant, pp. 342-361), Lardner (History of Heretics, bk. ii. c. 2), and Walch. (Hist, der Ketzer. i. 281-309.) Basileides was the author of Commentaries on the Gospel, in twenty-four books, fragments of which are preserved in Grabe, Spicileg, ii. p. 39. Origen, Ambrose, and Jerome mention a " gospel of Basileides," which, may perhaps mean nothing more than his Commentaries.
5. Bishop of the Libyan Pentapolis, was a contemporary and friend of Dionysius of Alexandria, to whom he wrote letters " on the time of our Lord's resurrection, and at what hour of that day the antepaschal fast should cease." The letters of Basileides are lost, but tlie answers of Dionysius remain. Cave says, that Basileides seems to have been an Egyptian by birth, and he places him at the year 256 a. d. (Hist. Litt* sub. ann.) [P. S.]
BASILIANUS, prefect of Egypt at the assassination of Caracalla and the elevation of Macrinus, by whom he was nominated to the command of the praetorians. Before setting out to assume his office, he put to death certain messengers despatched by Elagabalus to publish his claims and proclaim his accession ; but soon after, upon hearing of the success of the pretender and the overthrow of his patron, he fled to Italy, where he was betrayed by a friend, seized, and sent off to the new emperor, at that time wintering in Nicomedeia. Upon his arrival, he was slain by the orders of the prince, a. d. 213. (Dion Cass. Ixxviii. 35.) [W. R.]
BASILACAS. [nicephorus basilicas.]
BASILICUS (Ba<nAitfos), a rhetorician and sophist of Nicomedeia. As we know that he was one of the teachers of Apsines of Gadara, he must have lived about a. d. 200. He was the author of several rhetorical works, among which are specified one irepl tcov 5id tcoi/ Ae£€coi/ (T%7j/xc£Tce>i/, a second 7T€pi prjTopiKrjs TrapaovceuT/s, a third Trepl dcr/ofcrews1, and a fourth Trepl ^eraTroirfo'ews. (Suidas, s. vv. BacnAiKos and 'A^iVjjs; Eudoc. p. 93.) [L. S.]
BASILIDES. 1. A priest, who predicted success to Vespasian as he was sacrificing on mount Carmel. (Tac. Hist. ii. 75.)
2. An Egyptian of high rank, who is related to have appeared miraculously to Vespasian in the temple of Jupiter Serapis at Alexandria. (Tac. Hist. iv. 82; Sueton. Vesp. 7.) Suetonius calls him a freedman ; but the reading is probably corrupt.
BASILIDES, a jurist, contemporary with Justinian, and one of a commission of ten employed by the emperor to compile the first code, which was afterwards suppressed, and gave place to th§;