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BALSAM'0.

archate was conducted at Constantinople. He died about 1204. Of the works of this author there is no complete edition : they are scattered among va­rious collections. Under the auspices of the em­peror Manuel Comnenus and of Michael Anchialus, the patriarch of Constantinople, he composed com­mentaries or scholia upon the Syntagma and the Nomocanon of Photius. These scholia seem, from external evidence, (though there is some difference of opinion among critics as to the exact date of their composition,) to have been begun as early as 1166, and not to have been completed before 1192. They are of much use in illustrating the bearing of the imperial law of Rome upon the canon law of the Greek Church. The historical accuracy of Balsamo has been questioned. In the preface of his commentary upon Photius, he refers the last revision of the Basilica to Constantinus Porphyro-genitus; whereas Attaliata, Blastares, Harrneno-pulus, and other authorities, concur in ascribing that honour to Leo the Wise. The Syntagma of Photius (which is a collection of canons at large), and the Nomocanon (which is a systematic ab­stract), are parts of a single plan; but, with the scholia of Balsamo, they have been usuall}1" edited separately. The scholia on the Nomocanon are best given in Justelli et Voelli Biblioiheca Juris Canonici. (Paris, 1661, vol. ii. p. 789, &c.) The Syntagma, without the Nomocanon, is printed with the scholia of Balsamo and Zonaras subjoined to the text in the Synodicon of Bishop Beveridge. In this edition much use is made of an ancient Bod­leian MS., which supplies the lacunae of the for­mer printed edition of Paris, 1620. A further collation of Beveridge's text with three MSS. is given in Wolfii Anecdota Graeca Sacra et Pro-fana, vol. iv. p. 113. The scholia of Balsamo, un­like those of Zonaras, treat not so much of the sense of words as of practical questions, and the mode of reconciling apparent contradictions. The text of Justinian's collections is carefully compared by Balsamo with the Basilica, and the portions of the former which are not incorporated in the latter are regarded by him as having no validity in eccle­siastical matters.

Other genuine works of Balsamo are extant. His book MeAercSj' Kal dwoKptffewv, and his an­swers to the questions of Marcus, patriarch of Alexandria, are given by Leimclavius. (Jus. Gr. Horn. vol. i.) The former work is also to be found in Cotelerius, EccL Gr. Monum.

Several works have been erroneously attributed to Balsamo. Of these the most important is a Greek collection of Ecclesiastical Constitutions, in three books, compiled chiefly from the Digest, Code, and Novells of Justinian. It is inserted, with the Latin translation of Leunclavius, in Jus­telli et Voelli Bibl. jut. Can. vol. ii. F. A. Biener, however, in his history of the Authenticae (Diss. i. p. 16), proved that this collection was older than Balsamo; and in his history of the Novells (p. 179), he referred it to the time of the em­peror Heraclius. (a. d. 610—641.) Heimbach (Anecdota, vol. i. pp. xliv.—xlvii) maintains, in opposition to Biener, that the collection was made soon after the time of Justin II. (565-8), and that four Novells of Heraclius, appended to the work, are the addition of a later compiler. There is extant an arrangement of Justinian's Novells according to their contents, which was composed. as Biener has shewn, by Athanasius Scholasticus,

BARBATA.

though a small portion of it had been previously printed under the name of Balsamo. (Hugo, Rom. R. R. 14.)

The Glossa ordinaria of the Basilica, which was formed in the 12th century from more ancient scho­lia, is, without sufficient reason, attributed to Bal­samo by Assemani. (Bibl. Jur. Orient^ ii. p. 386.)

Tigerstrom, in his Aeussere Geschichte des Rom. Reclits (Berlin, 1841, p. 331), speaks of a npoxeipov^ or legal manual, of Antiockus Balsamo, as extant in MS.; but he does not say where, nor does he cite any authority for the fact. As Tigerstrbm is often inaccurate, we suspect that Antiochus is put by mistake for Theodorus, and that the Procheiron auctum is referred to, of which an account is given by C. E. Zacharia, Historiae Juris Graeco-Rornani Delineatio^ § 48. The commencement of this Pro­cheiron was published, by way of specimen, by Za­charia in the Prolegomena to his edition of the Procheiron of the emperor Basilius. (Heidelb. 1837.) The Procheiron Auctum is supposed by Biener (in Savigny's Journal, vol. viii. p. 276) to have been rather later than Balsamo, from whose works it borrows, as also from the works of Joannes Citrius, who outlived Balsamo. (Beveridge, Preface to the Synodicon., §§ 14—21; Bach, Hist. Jur. Rom. ed. Stockmann, p. 684 ; Heimbach, de Basil. Orig. pp. 130, 132 ; Biener, Gesck. der Now. pp. 210-218 ; Witte, in Rhein. Mus. fur Jurisp. iii. p. 37, n. ; Walter, Kirck&nrecht, Bonn, 1842, § 77.) [J.T.G.]

T. BALVE'NTIUS, a centurion of the first century (primi pill), who was severely wounded in the attack made by Ambiorix upon Q. Titurius Sabinus, b. c. 54. (Caes. B. G. v. 35.)

M. BAMBA'LIO, a man of no account, the father-in-law of M. Antonius, the triumvir, who received the nickname of Bambalio on account of a hesitancy in his speech. His full name was M. Fulvius Bambalio, and his daughter was Fulvia: he must not be confounded with Q. Fadius, whose daughter Fadia was Antony's first wife. (Cic. Phil. ii. 36, iii. 6.)

L. BA'NTIUS, of Nola, served in the Roman army at the battle of Cannae, b. c. 216, in which he was dangerously wounded and fell into the hands of Hannibal. Having been kindly treated by Hannibal, and sent home laden with gifts, he was anxious to surrender Nola to the Carthagi­nians, but was gained over to the Romans by the prudent conduct of Marcellus, who had the com­mand of Nola. (Liv. xxiii. 15 j Plut. Mar cell. 10, &c.)

BAPHIUS, a Greek commentator on the Basilica (cited Basilica, vol. vii. p. 787, ed. Fa- brot). His date and history are uncertain, but he probably lived in the 10th or llth century. Suarez (Notitia Basilicorum, § 39) thinks, that Baphius is not strictly a proper name, but an appellative epi­ thet given to an annotator on the Rubrics of the Basilica. This opinion is rejected by Bach. (Hist. Jur. Rom. 676, n. i.) Tigerstrom (Aeuss. JR'6mt Rechtsgesch. p. 330) erroneously calls him Salomon Baphius. The names should be separated by a comma, for Salomon is a distinct scholiast (cited Basilica, vol. iii. p. 361). [J. T. G.]

BARBA, CA'SSIUS, a friend of J. Caesar, ! who gave Cicero guards for his villa, when Caesar [ paid him a visit in b. c. 44. (Cic. ad Att. xiii. 52 ; comp. PMl. xiii. 2.)

BARBATA, the bearded, a surname of Venus (Aphrodite) among the Romans. (Serv. ad Aen.

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