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439

AURELIUS.

edition of the whole work is that by Haller, Lau-san, 1774, 8vo. 2 vols. A new edition was begun at Paris by Delattre, 1826, 8vo., but only one vo­lume was published. Some academical dissertations on Caelius Aurelianus were published by C. G. Kuhn, which are reprinted in his Opuscula A cade-mica Medica et Philologica9 Lips. 1827, 1828, 8vo. vol. ii. p. 1, &c. For further information respecting Caelius Aurelianus, see Haller's Biblioth. Medic. Prod. vol. i.; SprengePs Hist de la Med. vol. ii.; Bostock's Hist, of Med.; and Choulant's Handbuck der Bucherkunde fur die Aeltere Medicin, Leipzig, 8vo. 1841, from which two latter works the pre­ceding account has been taken. [W. A. G.] AURELIA'NUS FESTI'VUS. [fbstivus.] AURE'LIUS, one of the names of several

AURELIUS.

Roman emperors, of whom an account is given under antoninus, aurelius, caracalla, ca-rinus, carus, claudius, commodus, maxen-tius, maximianus, numerianus, probus, quintillus, romulus, severus, verus.

M. AURE'LIUS ANTONI'NUS, commonly distinguished by the epithet of " the philosopher,'1 was born at Rome, on the Coelian hill, on the 20th of April, a. d. 121. From his paternal ancestors, who for three generations had held high offices of state and claimed descent from Numa, he inherited the name of M. Annius Verus, while from his great-grandfather on the mother's side he received the appellation of Catilius Severus. The principal members and connexions of the family are repre­sented in the following table :—

Annius Verus, of praetorian rank, a native of the municipium of Succubo in Spain.

Annius Verus, consul for a third time a. d. 126, and praef. urb. Married Rupilia Faustina, daughter of Rupilius Bonus, a consular.

Annius Libo, Consul, A. D.I 28.

Annius Verus. Married Domitia Calvilla, named also Lucilla, and died while praetor.

Annia Galeria Faustina AuguMa, wife of Antoninus

Pius Augustus.

Maternal Descent.

L. Catilius Severus, consul A. d. 120, and praef. urb.

Catilia. (Not named), married, it would seem,

L. Calvisius Tullus, consul a second time 109.

Domitia Calvilla. Married Annius Verus.

Annia

Cornificia,

younger

than M.

Aurelius.

M. Annius Verus,

postea

M. aurelius antoninus augustus. Married his first cousin, Annia Faustina.

Annia Faustina Augusta, wife of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Au­gustus.

M. Annius Verus,

postea

M. aurelius antoninus aug.

*

Annius Verus

Caesar, born 163, died

Antoninus Geminus, twin bro­ther of Commodus, died when

170. 4 years old.

L. Aurelius Com­modus Augustus, born 31 August, a. d. 161. Mar­ried Brutia Cris-pina, daughter of Brutius Praesens.

Annia Lucilla Augusta, wife of L. Aurelius Verus Au­gustus, the colleague of M. Aurelius. Her second hus­band was Claudius Pom-peianus, a Roman knight, of Syrian extraction.

Vibia Domitia Fadilla. Aurelia Faustina. Sabina.

N.B. M. Aurelius and Faustina seem to have had several children in addition to the above. Three daughters were still alive after the death of Commodus (Lamprid. Commod. 18 ; Herodian. i. 12), and one of these was put to death by Caracalla in 212. We find in an inscription the names of his sons, T. Aurelius Antoninus, and T. Aelius Aurelius, both of whom were, it is probable, older than Commodus, and died young. (See Tillemont.)

The father of young Marcus having died while praetor, the boy was adopted by his grandfather, Annius Verus, and from a very early period enjoyed the favour of Hadrian, who bestowed on him the honours of the equestrian order when only six years old, admitted him as a member of the frater­nity of the Salian priests at the age of eight, and as a tribute to the sincerity and truthfulness of his disposition, was wont in playful affection to ad­dress him not as Verus but Verissimus. At the age of fifteen he received the manly gown, and was be­trothed to the daughter of Aelius Caesar, the heir-apparent to the throne. But not long after (138), in consequence of the sudden death of his intended father-in-law, still more brilliant prospects were suddenly opened up to the youth. For, according to the arrangement explained under antoninus

Pius, both he and L. Ceionius Commodus, son of Aelius Caesar, were adopted by Antoninus Pius, immediately after the latter had been himself adopted by Hadrian. He was now styled M. Aelius Aurelius Verus Caesar, and was immediately chosen to fill the office of quaestor for the following year. The proposed union with the daughter of Aelius Caesar was set aside, on account, it was alleged,, of disparity in age, and Faustina, the daughter of Pius, who had been previously des­tined by Hadrian for young Ceionius Commodus, was fixed upon as the future wife of Marcus Aure­lius. Their nuptials, however, were not celebrated until after a lapse of seven years. (145.) In 140 he was raised to the consulship, and in 147, after the birth of a daughter by Faustina, was permitted to share the tribunate, and was invested with va-

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