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rius had returned to Nola, where he was immediately saluted as the successor of Augustus. The body of the emperor was carried by the decuriones of Nola to Bovillae, where it was received by the Roman equites and conveyed to Rome. The solemn apotheosis took place in the Campus Martius, and his ashes were deposited in the mausoleum which he himself had built.
As regards the domestic life of Augustus, he was one of those unhappy men whom fortune surrounds with all her outward splendour, and who can yet partake but little of the general happiness which they establish or promote. His domestic misfortunes must have embittered all his enjoyments. Augustus was a man of great caution and moderation—two qualities by which he maintained his power over the Roman world; but in his matrimonial relations and as a father he was not happy, chiefly through his own fault. He was first married, though only nominally, to Clodia, a daughter of Clodius and Fulvia. His second wife, Scribonia, was a relation of Sext. Pompeius : she bore him his only daughter, Julia. After he had divorced Scribonia, he married Livia Drusilla, who was carried away from her husband, Tiberius Nero, in a state of pregnancy. She brought Augustus two step-sons, Tiberius Nero and Nero Claudius Drusus. She secured the love and attachment of her husband to the last moments of his life. Augustus had at first fixed on M. Marcellus as his successor,
the son of his sister Octavia, who was married to his daughter, Julia. Agrippa, jealous of Augustus* partiality for him, left Rome, and did not return till Marcellus had died in the flower of his life. Julia was now compelled by her father to marry the aged Agrippa, and her sons, Caius and Lucius Caesar, were raised to the dignity of principes ju-ventutis. At the death of Agrippa, in b. c. 12, Tiberius was obliged to divorce his wife, Vipsania, and, contrary to his own will, to marry Julia. Dissatisfied with her conduct and the elevation of her sons, he went, in b. c. 6, to Rhodes, where he spent eight years, to avoid living with Julia. Augustus, who became at last disgusted with her conduct, sent her in b. c. 2 into exile in the island of Pandataria, near the coast of Campania, whither she was followed by her mother, Scribonia. The children of Julia, Julia the Younger and Agrippa Postumus, were likewise banished. The grief of Augustus was increased by the deaths of his friend Maecenas, in b. c. 8, and of his two grandsons, Caius and Lucius Caesar, who are said to have fallen victims to the ambitious designs of Livia, who wished to make room for her own son, Tiberius, whom the deluded emperor was persuaded to adopt and to make his colleague and successor. Tiberius, in return, was obliged to adopt Drusus Germanicus, the son of his late brother, Drusus. A more complete view of the family of Augustus is given in the annexed stemma.
stemma of augustus and his family.
Octavia, the elder.
Qctavia, the younger.
Julia, married to
1. M. Marcellus. No issue.
the sister of Germanicus. to Aemilia Lepida. to L. Aemilius pina, Postu-
Died a. d. 4. Died A. d. 2. Paullus.
married to Germanicus.
mus. Put to death A. d. 14.
2. Aemilia Lepida,
to 1. M. Vi-cinius, 2. Quintilius Varus. (?)
Aemilia Cn. Domi- and 2. M. Aemil.
Lepida. (Tac. Ann. vi. 40.)