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On this page: Att I Us – Attilianus – Attilius – Attius – Attius Tullius – Attus – Attus Clausus – Atyanas – Atymnius – Atys

ATYMNIUS.

Romans forced his camp at Chalons (Jornandes, | RcJ). Get. 40); the saying, that no fortress could ' exist in the empire, if he wished to raze it; and the speech at Chalons, recorded by Jornandes (Reb. Get. 39), which contains parts too characteristic to have been forged.

The only permanent monuments of his career, be­sides its destructiveness, are to be found in the great mound which he raised for the defence of his army during the siege of Aquileia, and which still re­mains at Udine (Herbert, Attila^ p. 489) ; and in­directly in the foundation of Venice by the Italian nobles who fled from his ravages in a. d. 451. The partial descent of the Hungarians from the rem­nant of his army, though maintained strenuously by Hungarian historians, has been generally doubt­ed by later writers, as resting on insufficient evi­dence.

The chief historical authority for his life is Pris-cus, either as preserved in Excerpt, de Legal. 33-76 (in the Byzantine historians), or retailed to us through Jornandes. (Reb. Get. 32-50.) But he has also become the centre of three distinct cycles of tradition, which, though now inseparably blended with fable, furnish glimpses of historical truth. 1. The Hungarian Legends, which are to be found in the life of him by Dalmatinus and Nicola.us Olahus, the Enneads of Sabellicus and the Decads of Bonfinius,—none of which are earlier, in their present form, than the twelfth century.

2. The Ecclesiastical Legends, which relate to his invasion of Gaul, and which are to be found in the lives of St. Anianus, St. Servatius, St. Geno-vefa, St. Lupus, and St. Ursula, in the Acta Sanc­torum.

3. The German Legends, which depart more entirely from history, and are to be found in the Nibelungen Lied, in a Latin poem on Attila, pub­lished by Fischer, and, as Mr. Herbert supposes (p. 536), in the romances about Arthur. See also W. Grimm's Heldensayen.

In modern works, a short account is given in Gibbon (cc. 34, 35), Rotteck (in Ersch and GrLiber's Encyclop'ddie), and a most elaborate one in the notes to Mr. Herbert's poem of Attila, 1838, and in Klemm's Attila, 1827. Com p. J. v. Mil Her, At­tila der Field des funften JarJi. 1806. [A. P. S.]

ATTILIANUS, a sculptor, a native of Aphro-disias. One of his productions, a statue of a muse, is in the museum at Florence. (Winckel-mann, vol. vi. pt. 2. p. 341, note.) [C. P. M.J

ATTILIUS. [atilius.]

ATT I US. [Accius and atius.]

ATTIUS or ATTUS NA'VIUS. [navius.]

ATTIUS TULLIUS. [tullius.]

ATTUS CLAUSUS. [clausus and clau-dia gens ]

ATTUS, a Sabine praenomen. (Val. Max. Epit. de Nomin.}

ATYANAS ('ArucZms), the son of Hippo­crates, a native of Adramyttium? conquered in boxing in the Olympic games, b. c. 72. He was afterwards killed by pirates. (Phlegon. Trail, ap. Phot. Cod. 97, p. 83, b., 40, ed. Bekk. ; Cic. pro Place, c. 13.}

ATYMNIUS ('Arv.uj/tos- or 'Arvpvos), a son of Zeus and Cassiopeia, a beautiful boy, who was beloved by Sarpedon. (Apollod. iii. l.§2.) Others call him a son of Phoenix. (Schol. ad Apollon. ii. 17ft.) He seems to have been worshipped at Gor-tyn in Crete together with Europa. (llock, Creta,

417

ATYS.

i. p. 105.) Two other mythical personages of this name occur in Quint. Smyrn. iii. 300, and Horn. //. xvi. 317, &c. [L. S.]

ATYS, ATTYS, ATTES, ATTIS, or ATT1N (^Arvst ^attus, ^Arrf]s, "Arris or 'Arriv). 1. A son of Nana, and a beautiful shepherd of the Phry­gian town, Celaenae. (Theocr. xx. 40; Philostr. Epist. 39 ; Tertul. de Nat. L) His story is related in different ways. According to Ovid (Fast. iv. 221), Cybele loved the beautiful shepherd, and made him her own priest on condition that he should preserve his chastity inviolate. Atys broke the covenant with a nymph, the daughter of the river-god Sangarius, and was thrown by the god­dess into a state of madness, in which he unmanned himself. When in consequence he wanted to put an end to his life, C}rbele changed him into a fir-tree, which henceforth became sacred to her, and she commanded that, in future, her priests should be eunuchs. (Compare Arnob. adv. Gent. v. 4, and agdistis.) Another story relates, that Atys, the priest of Cybele, fled into a forest to escape the voluptuous embraces of a Phrygian king, but that he was overtaken, and in the ensuing struggle un­manned his pursuer. The dying king avenged himself by inflicting the same calamity upon Atys. Atys was found by the priests of Cybele under a fir-tree, at the moment he was expiring. They carried him into the temple of the goddess, and en­deavoured to restore him to life, but in vain. Cy­bele ordained that the death of Atys should be bewailed every year in solemn lamentations, and that henceforth her priests should be eunuchs. (FaAAcu, Galli., Serv. ad A en. ix. 116; comp. Lo-beck, ad Plirynich. p. 273.) A third account says, that Cybele, when exposed by her father, the Phry­gian king Maeon, was fed by panthers and brought up by shepherdesses, and that she afterwards se­cretly married Atys, who was subsequently called Papas. At this moment, Cybele was recognised and kindly received by her parents; but when her connexion with Atys became known to them, Maeon ordered Attis, and the shepherdesses among whom she had lived, to be put to death. Cybele, maddened with grief at this act of her father, tra­versed the country amid loud lamentations and the sound of cymbals. Phrygia was now visited by an epidemic and scarcity. The oracle commanded that Attis should be buried, and divine honours paid to Cybele; but as the body of the youth was already in a state of decomposition, the funeral ho­nours were paid to an image of him, which was made as a substitute. (Diod. iii. 58, &c.) Accord­ing to a fourth story related by Pausanias (vii. 17. § 5), Atys was a son of the Phrygian king Calaus, and by nature incapable of propagating his race. When he had grown up, he went to Lydia, where he introduced the worship of Cybele. The grateful goddess conceived such an attachment for him, that Zeus in his anger at it, sent a wild boar into Lydia, which killed manv of the inhabitants, and among

«/ ' o

them Atys also. Atys \vas believed to be buried in Pessinus under mount Agdistis. (Paus. i. 4. § 5.) He was worshipped in the temples of Cybele in common with this goddess, (vii. 20. § 2; agdistis; Hesych. s. v. "atttjs.) In works of art he is re­presented as a shepherd with flute and staff. His worship appears to have been introduced, into Greece at a comparatively late period. It is an ingenious opinion of Bottiger (Amaltkea, i. p. 353, &c.), that the mythus of Atys represents the t\vo-

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