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ATTAGINUS ('Arra^vos), the son of Phry-non, one of the leading men in Thebes, betrayed Thebes to Xerxes on his invasion of Greece (Pans, vii. 10. § 1), and took an active part in favour of the Persians. He invited Mardonrus and fifty of the noblest Persians in his army to a splendid banquet at Thebes, shortly before the battle of Plataea, b. c. 479. After the battle, the Greeks marched against Thebes, and required Attaginus, with the other partisans of the Median party, to be delivered up to them. This was at first refused; but, after the city had been besieged for twenty days, his fellow-citizens determined to comply with the demands of the Greeks. Attaginus made his escape, but his family were handed over to Pausa-nias, who dismissed them without injury. (Herod. ix. 15, 86, 88; Athen. iv. p. 148, e.)
ATTALIATA,* MICHAEL, a judge and proconsul under Michael Ducas, emperor of the East, at whose command he published, A. t>. 1073, a work containing a system of law in 95 titles, under the name TroiTj^a vojj.ikov tjtol Trpay^ariKrf. This work was translated into Latin by Leunclavius, and edited by him in the beginning of the second volume of his collection, Jus Graeco-Romanum. If it is a poem, as might be inferred from the title, no one has yet observed the fact or discovered the metre in which it is written, nofy/m vo\jnK.6v is usually translated opus de jure. The historians of Roman law before Ritter (Ritter, ad Heinec. Hist. J. R. § 406) wrote irovr^a. for iroif]fj,a. There are many manuscripts of the work in existence, which differ considerably from the printed edition of Leunclavius. (Bach, Hist. J. R. p. 682.) It may be mentioned that extracts from a similar contemporary work, ffvvotyis ruv yo/xcoy, by Michael Psellus, are given by Leunclavius as scholia to the work of Attaliata, and printed as if they were prose, whereas they are really specimens of the TroAiTi/col o"tlxoij or popular verses, in which accent or emphasis is supposed to supply the place of quantity. [psellus.] (Heimbach, Anecdota, i. 125-6 ; C. E. Zachariae, Historiae Juris Graeco-Romani delineatio^. 7l,Heidelberg,1839.) [J.T.G.]
ATTALION ('ATTaAfwv), a physician, who wrote a commentary on the Aphorisms of Hippo crates, which is now lost. His date is very uncer tain, as he is mentioned only in the preface to the Commentary on the Aphorisms falsely ascribed to Oribasius, who lived in the fourth century after Christ. [W. A. G.]
ATTALUS ("ArraXos). 1. One of the generals of Philip of Macedon, and the uncle of Cleopatra, ivhom Philip married in b. c. 337. He is called by Justin (ix. 5), and in one passage of Diodorus (xvii. 2), the brother of Cleopatra; but this is undoubtedly a mistake. (Wess. ad Diod. xvi. 93, xvii. 2.) At the festivities in celebration of the
* The quantity of the name appears from the last lines of an epigram prefixed to the edition of Leunclavius :
In some MSS. the name in the title of the work is spelled 'ATraAticor^y. It is derived from the pla-ce Attala.
marriage of his niece, Attalus, ^hen the guests were heated with wine, called upon the company to beg of the gods a legitimate (yvrjcnos) successor to the throne. This roused the wrath of Alexander who was present, and a brawl ensued, in which Philip drew his sword and rushed upon his son. Alexander and his mother Olympias withdrew from the kingdom (Plut. Aleoc. 7; Justin, ix. 7; Athen. xiii. p. 557, d. e.); but though they soon afterwards returned, the influence of Attalus does not appear to have been weakened. Philip's connexion with Attalus not only thus involved him in family dissensions, but eventually cost him his life. Attalus had inflicted a grievous outrage upon Pausanias, a youth of noble family, and one of Philip's bodyguard. Pausanias complained to Philip; but, as he was unable to obtain the punishment of the offender, he resolved to be revenged upon the king himself, and accordingly assassinated him at the festival at Aegae in b. c. 336. [philip.] (Arist. Pol. v. 8. § 10 ; Diod. xvi. 93 ; Plut. Aleae. 10 ; Justin, ix. 6.) Attalus was in Asia at the time of Philip's death, as he had been previously sent thither, along with Parmenion and Amyntas in the command of some troops, in order to secure the Greek cities in Western Asia to the cause of Philip. (Diod. xvi. 91 ; Justin, ix. 5.) Attalus could have little hope of obtaining Alexander's pardon, and therefore entered very readily into the proposition of Demosthenes to rebel against the new monarch. But, mistrusting his power, he soon afterwards endeavoured to make terms with Alexander, and sent him the letter which he had received from Demosthenes. This, however, produced no change in the purpose of Alexander, who had previously sent Hecataeus into Asia with orders to arrest Attalus, and convey him to Macedon, or, if this could not be accomplished, to kill him secretly. Heca-teus thought it safer to adopt the latter course, and had him assassinated privately. (Diod. xvii. 2, 3,5.)
2. Son of Andromenes the Stymphaean, and one of Alexander's officers, was accused with his brothers, Amyntas and Simmias, of having been engaged in the conspiracy of Philotas, b. c. 330, but was acquitted, together with his brothers. [amyntas, No. 4.] In b. c. 328, Attalus was left with Polysperchon and other officers in Bactria with part of the troops, while the king himself marched against the Sogdians. (Arrian, iv. 16.) He accompanied Alexander in his expedition into India, and was employed in several important duties. (Arrian, iv. 27, v. 12.) In Alexander's last illness, b. c. 323, he was one of the seven chief officers who passed the night in the temple of Serapis at Babylon, in order to learn from the god whether Alexander should be carried into the temple. (Arrian, vii. 26.)
After the death of Alexander, Attalus joined Perdiccas, whose sister, Atalante, he had married. He accompanied his brother-in-law in his unfortunate campaign against Egypt in b. c. 321, and had the command of the fleet. After the murder of Perdiccas, all his friends were condemned to death by the army; Atalante, who was in the camp, was immediately executed, but Attalus escaped his wife's fate in consequence of his absence with the fleet at Pelusium. He forthwith sailed to Tyre, where the treasures of Perdiccas had been deposited. These, which amounted to as much as 800 talents, were surrendered to him by Archelaus,