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tury. The subscript is always placed after, instead of under, the vowel with which it is connected, and the whole is written without contractions.

The first edition of Athenaeus was that of Aldus, Venice, 1514 ; a second published at Basle, 1535 ; a third by Casaubon at Geneva, 1597, with the Latin version of Dalecampius (Jacques Dalechamp of Caen), and a commentary published in 1600; a fourth by Schweighauser., Strasburg, 14 vols. 8vo. 1801-1807, founded on a collation of the above- mentioned MS. and also of a valuable copy of the Epitome; a fifth by W. Dindorf, 3 vols. 8vo., Leipsic, 1827. The last is the best, Schweig­ hauser not having availed himself sufficiently of the sagacity of previous critics in amending the text, and being himself apparently very ignorant of metrical laws. There is a translation of Athe­ naeus into French by M. Lefevre de Villebrune, under the title "Banquet des Savans, par Athenee," 1789-1791, 5 vols. 4to. A good article on Schweig- hauser's edition will be found in the Edinburgh Review, vol. iii. 1803. [G. E. L. C.]

ATHENAEUS ('A^Vaios), a celebrated physi­cian, who was the founder of the sect of the Pneuma-tici. He was born in Cilicia, at Attaleia, according to Galen (De Element, ex Plippocr. i. 6. vol. i. p. 457 ; Defin. Med. prooem. vol. xix. pp. 347, 356 ; De Trein. PcJpit., £{c. c. 6. vol. vii. p. 609 ; De Differ. Puts. iv. 10. vol. viii. p. 749), or at Tarsus according to Caelius Aurelianus. (De Morb. Acut. ii. 1, p, 74.) The exact years of his birth and death are unknown, but as Agathinus was one of his followers [agathinus], he must have lived in the first century after Christ. (Gal. De Dignosc. Puls. i. 3. vol. viii. p. 787.) He was tutor to Theodoras (Diog. Lae'rt. ii. 104), and appears to have practised at Rome with great success. Some account of his doctrines and those of the Pneumatic! is given in the Diet, of Ant. s. v. Pneumatici, but of his personal history no further particulars are known. He appears to have been a voluminous writer, as the twenty-fourth volume of one of his works is quoted by Galen (De Cans. Symptom, ii. 3. vol. vii. p. 165), and the twenty-ninth by Oribasius. (Coll. Medic, ix. 5. p. 366.) Nothing, however, remains but the titles, and some frag­ments preserved by Oribasius. (Coll. Medic, i. 2. p. 206, v. 5. p. 263, ix. 5. 12. pp. 366, 368.) For further information the reader may consult Le Clerc's Hist, de la Med.; Holler's Biblioth. Medic. Pract. vol. i. p. 190 ; Osterhausen, De Sectae PneumatiGorumMedicortim Historic*, Altorf, 1791, 8vo.; and Sprengel's Hist, de la Med.

There is in the Royal Library at Paris a Greek MS. of the sixteenth century, containing a treatise on Urine, Ilepl Qvpwv ^vvotyis 5A/cpi£?j?, by a per­ son of the name'of Athenaeus, but it is not known for certain whether he is the same individual as the founder of the Pneumatici. [ W. A. G.]

ATHENAEUS, a statuary of distinction, who flourished about the 155th Olympiad. (PVm.H.N. xxxiv. 8. s. 19.) [C. P. M.]

ATHENAGORAS ('AOr.yayopas) delivers in Thucydides (vi. 35—40) the speech which repre­ sents the common feeling of the democratical party at Syracuse on the first reports of the intended expedition from Athens, js. c. 415. He is called §77,0,01; 'jrpotrrdrys, who, in Syracuse and other Dorian states, appears to have been an actual magistrate, like the Roman tribimus plebis. (Miil- ler. Dor, iii. 9. §• 1.) [A. II. C.]

ATHENAGORAS ('Afoii/cryopas). 1. ASamian, the son of Archestratides, was one of the ambassa­dors sent by the Samians to Leotychides shortly be­fore the battle of Mycale, b. c. 479. (Herod, ix. 90.)

2. A Milesian, was sent by Ptolemy at the head of some mercenary troops to the assistance of the Rhodians, when they were attacked by Demetrius Poliorcetes (b. c. 305), and commanded the guard of the counter-mine which was dug by the Rho­dians. Demetrius attempted to bribe him, but he disclosed his overtures to the Rhodians, and ena­bled them to make prisoner Alexander, an officer of high rank in the service of Demetrius. (Diod. xx. 94.)

3. An officer in the service of Philip, king of Macedonia, b. c. 200. His name occurs not im-frequently in the history of the war between that prince and the Romans. (Liv. xxxi. 27, 35, 43? xxxii. 5, xxxiii. 7; Polyb. xviii. 5.)

4. There was an officer of the same name in the service of Perseus, who commanded at Thessalonica in the war with the Romans, b. c. 168. (Liv. xliv. 32.)

There were several other persons of this name, among whom we may mention a native of Cumae, spoken of by Cicero (pro Place, c. 7) ; a Platonic philosopher, to whom Boethus dedicated his work irepl t&v Trapa HAa-rom aTropovuevoov Ae^ecoz/ (Pho- tius, Cod. 155); and a bishop of Byzantium. (Philipp. Cypr. Ckroti. p. 4; Fabric. Bibl. Grace, vii. p. 101.) [C, P.M.]

ATHENAGORAS (AO^aySpas), a Grecian philosopher converted to the Christian religion, nourished in the second century of our era. His name is unaccountably passed over by Eusebius and Jerome ; and the only ancient biographical notice of him is contained in a fragment of Philip-pus Sidetes, published by Henry Dodwell along with his Dissertaliones in Ir&naaum. In this do­cument it is stated, that Athenagoras was the first master of the catechetical school at Alexandria, and that he flourished in the days of Hadrian and Antoninus, to whom he addressed an Apology on behalf of the Christians. It is added that he had, before Celsus, intended to write against the Chris­tians ; but when he examined the Holy Scriptures with this view, he became a convert to the faith he had purposed to destroy. It is further asserted by this writer, that Clemens Alexandrinus was the disciple of Athenagoras, and Pantaenus the disci­ple of Clemens. The authority of Philippus Sidetes was lightly esteemed, even in ancient times ; and there are some manifest inaccuracies in the foregoing statement. Athenagoras's defence of the Christians was certainly not addressed to Hadrian and Antoninus. It has been contended by some modern scholars, that it was presented to Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus ; but it has been shewn by irrefragable proofs, that the em­perors to whom it was addressed were Marcus Aurelius and his son Commodus. In this view Baronius, Petavius, Tillemont, Maranus, Fabricius, Lumper, and many others concur. It is certain, again, that Clemens Alexandrinus was the pupil, not the master, of Pantaenus. And it is very im­probable that Athenagoras was in any way con­nected with the celebrated catechetical school of Alexandria. All that we know respecting him is, that he was an Athenian by birth, a proselyte to Christianity, and the author of the above-mention­ed Apology, and of a treatise in defence of the

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