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§ ?), and the other a daughter of the river-god .Asopus. (Diod. iv. 72.) [L. S.]
ASOPIUS ('A<re&nos). 1. Father of Phor-mion (Thuc. i. 64), called Asopichus by Pausanias. (i. 24. § 12.)
2. Son of Phormion, was, at the request of the Acarnanians who wished to have one of Phor-mion's family in the command, sent by the Athenians in the year following his father's naval victories, b. c. 428 (the 4th of the Peloponnesian war), with some ships to Naupactus. He fell shortly after in an unsuccessful attempt on the Leucadian coast. (Thuc. iii. 7.) [A. H. C.]
ASOPODORUS, a statuary, possibly a native of Argos (Thiersch, Epoch, d. bild. Kunst. p. 275, Anm.), was a pupil of Polycletus. (Plin. xxxiv. 8. s. 19.) [C. P. M.]
ASOPUS ("Ao-w^os), the god of the river Asopus, was a son of Oceanus and Tethys, or according to others, of Poseidon and Pero, of Zeus and Eurynome, or lastly of Poseidon and Cegluse. (Apollod. iii, 12. § 6; Paus. ii. 5. § 2, 12. § 5.) He was married to Metope, the daughter of the river god Ladon, by whom he had two sons and twelve, or, according to others, twenty daughters. Their names differ in the various accounts. (Apol lod. 1. c.; Diod. iv. 72 ; Schol. ad Find. Ol. vi. 144? Isthm. viii. 37 ; Paus. ix. 1. § 2 ; Herod, ix. 51 ; Eustath. ad Horn. p. 278.) Several of these daughters of Asopus were carried off by gods, which is commonly believed to indicate the colo nies established by the people inhabiting the banks of the Asopus, who also transferred the name of Asopus to other rivers in the countries where they settled. Aegina was one of the daughters of Asopus, and Pindar mentions a river of this name in Aegina. (Nem. iii. 4, with the Schol.) In Greece there were two rivers of this name, ,the one in Achaia in Peloponnesus, and the other in Boeotia, and the legends of the two are frequently confounded or mixed up with each other. Hence arose the dif ferent accounts about the descent of Asopus, and the difference in the names of his daughters. But as these names have, in most cases, reference .to geographical circumstances, it is not difficult to perceive to which of the two river gods this or that particular daughter originally belonged. The more celebrated of the two is that of Peloponnesus. When Zeus had carried off his daughter Aegina, and Asopus had searched after her everywhere, he was at last informed by Sisyphus of Corinth, that Zeus was the guilty party. Asopus now revolted against Zeus, and wanted to fight with him, but Zeus struck him with his thunderbolt and confined him to his original bed. Pieces of charcoal which were found in the bed of the river in later times, were believed to have been produced by the light ning of Zeus. (Paus. ii. 5. § 1, &c.; Apollod. iii. 12. § 6.) According to Pausanias (ii. 12. § 5) the Peloponnesian Asopus .was a man who, in the reign of Aras, discovered the river which was sub sequently called by his name. [L. S.]
ASPASIA ('Ao-Trao-i'a). 1. The celebrated Milesian, daughter of Axiochus, came to reside at
Athens, and there gained and fixed the affections of Pericles, not more by her beauty than by her high mental accomplishments. With his wife, who was a lady of rank, and by whom he had two sons, he seems to have lived unhappily; and, having parted from her by mutual consent, he attached himself to Aspasia during the rest of his life as closely as was allowed by the law, which forbade marriage with a foreign woman under severe penalties. (Plut. Peric. 24 ; Demosth. c. Neaer. p. 1350.) Nor can there be any doubt that she acquired over him a great ascendancy; though this perhaps comes before us in an exaggerated shape in the statements which ascribe to her influence the war with Samos on behalf of Miletus in b. c. 440, as well as the Peloponnesian war itself. (Plut. Peric. I.e.; Aris-toph. Acliarn. 497, &c.; Schol. ad loo.; comp. Aris-toph. Pax, 587, &c.; Thuc. i. 115.) The connexion, indeed, of Pericles with Aspasia appears to have been a favourite subject of attack in Athenian comedy (Aristoph. AcJiarn. I. c.; Plut. Peric. 24 ; Schol. ad Plat. Meneoc. p. 235), as also with certain writers of philosophical dialogues, between whom and the comic poets, in respect of their abusive propensities, Athenaeus remarks a strong family likeness. (Athen. v. p. 220; Casaub. ad loc.) Nor was their bitterness satisfied with the vent of satire ; for it was Hermippus, the comic poet, who brought against Aspasia the double charge of impiety and of infamously pandering to the vices of Pericles ; and it required all the personal influence of the latter with the people, and his most earnest entreaties and tears, to procure her acquittal. (Plut. Peric. 32; Athen. xiii. p. 589, e.; comp. Thirl-wall's Greece, vol. iii. p. 87, &c., and Append, ii.) The house of Aspasia was the great centre of the highest literary and philosophical society of Athens, nor was the seclusion of the Athenian matrons so strictly preserved, but that many even of them resorted thither with their husbands for the pleasure and improvement of her conversation (Plut. Peric. 24); so that the intellectual influence which she exercised was undoubtedly considerable, even though we reject the story of her being the preceptress of Socrates, on the probable ground of the irony of those passages in which such statement is made (Plat. Meneoc. pp. 235, 249 ; Xen. Oecon. iii. 14, Memor. ii. 6. § 36 ; Herm. de Soc. magist. et disc, juven.; Schleiermacher's Introd. to the Menexenus]; for Plato certainly was no approver of the administration of Pericles (Gorg. p. 515, d. &c.)? and thought perhaps that the refinement introduced by Aspasia had only added a new temptation to the licentiousness from which it was not disconnected. (Athen. xiii. p. 569, f.) On the death of Pericles, Aspasia is said to have attached herself to one Lysicles, a dealer in cattle, and to have made him by her instructions a first-rate orator. (Aesch. ap. Plut. Peric. 24; Schol. ad Plat. Menex. p. 235.) For an amusing account of a sophistical argument ascribed to her by Aeschines the philosopher, see Cic. de Invent, i. 31; Quintil. Inst. Orat. v. 11. The son of Pericles by Aspasia was legitimated by a special decree of the people, and took his father's name. (Plut. Peric. 37.) He was one of the six generals who were put to death after the victory at Argiriusae. (Comp. Jacobs, Verm. Schriften, vol. iv. pp. 349—397.)