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ASCLEPIADES.

history and of his practice, it would appear that he may be fairly characterized as a man. of natural talents, acquainted with human nature (or rather with human weakness), possessed of considerable shrewdness and address, but with little science or professional skill. He began (upon the plan which is so generally found successful by those who are conscious of their own ignorance) by vilifying the principles and practice of his predecessors, and by asserting that he had discovered a more compen­dious and effective mode of treating diseases than had been before known to the world. As he was ignorant of anatomy and pathology, he decried the labours of those who sought to investigate the structure of the body, or to watch the phenomena of disease, and he is said to have directed his attacks more particularly against the writings of Hippocrates. It appears, however, that he had the discretion to refrain from the use of very active and powerful remedies, and to trust principally to the efficacy of diet, exercise, bathing, and other circumstances of this nature. A part of the great popularity which he enjoyed depended upon his prescribing the liberal use of wine to his patients (Plin. //. N. vii. 37, xxiii. 22), and upon his not only attending in all cases, with great assiduity, to everything which contributed to their comfort, but also upon his nattering their prejudices and indulg­ing their inclinations. By the due application of these means, and from the state of the people among whom he practised, we may, without much difficulty, account for the great eminence at which he arrived, and we cannot fail to recognise in Asclepiades the prototype of more than one popular physician of modern times. Justice, however, obliges us to admit, that he seems to have pos­sessed a considerable share of acuteness and dis­cernment, which on some occasions he employed with advantage. It is probable that to him we are indebted, in the first instance, for the arrangement of diseases into-the two great classes of Acute and Chronic (Gael. Aurel. De Morb. Cliron. iii. 8. p. 469), a division which has a real foundation in nature, and which still forms an important feature in the most improved modern nosology. In his philosophical principles Asclepiades is said to have been a follower of Epicurus, and to have adopted his doctrine of atoms and pores, on which he attempted to build a new theory of disease, by supposing that all morbid action might be reduced into obstruction of the pores and irregular distri­bution of the atoms. This theory he accommodated to his division of diseases, the acute being supposed to depend essentially upon a constriction of the pores, or an obstruction of them by a superfluity of atoms ; the chronic, upon a relaxation of the pores or a deficiency of the atoms. Nothing remains of his writings but a few fragments, which have been collected and published by Gumpert in the little work mentioned above. There is a poem con­taining directions respecting health (vyizivcL Trapay-7eA,uara) which is ascribed to Asclepiades of Bi-thynia, and which was first published by R. von Welz, Wiirzberg, 1842 ; but a writer in the Rliei-niscfies Museum (p. 444 in the vol. of 1843) has shewn, that this poem could not have been written before the seventh century after Christ.

The age at which Asclepiades died and the date of his death are unknown; but it is said that he laid a wager with Fortune, engaging to forfeit his character as a physician if he should ever suffer

ASCLEPJODORUS.

from any disease himself. Pliny, who tells the anecdote (H. N. vii. 37), adds, that he won his wager, for that he reached a great age and died at last from an accident.

Further information respecting the medical and philosophical opinions of Asclepiades may be found in Sprengel's Hist, de la Med.; Isensee, Gesch. der Med.; Ant. Cocchi, Discorso Primo sopra Asclepiade, Firenze, 1758, 4to.; G. F. Bianchmi, La Medicina d"1 Asclepiades per ben curare le Malattie Acute., raccolta da Varii Frammenti Greci e Latini^ Venezia, 1769, 4to.; K. F. Burdach, Asclepiades und Jolm Brown, eine Parallel?,, Leipzig, 1800, 8vo.; Id. Scriptorum de Asclepiade Index., Lips. 1800, 4to.; Bostoek's Hist, of Med.., from which work part of the preceding account has been taken.

2. asclepiades pharmacion (4>ap/xaK<W) or junior, a physician who must have lived at the end of the first or the beginning of the second century after Christ, as he quotes Andromachus, Dioscorides, and Scibonius Largus (G&l.De Compos. Medicam. sec. Locos, vii. 2, x. 2, vol. xiii. pp. 51, 53, 342 ; De Compos. Medicam. sec. Gen. vii. 6, vol. xiii. p. 968), and is himself quoted by Ga­len. He derived his surname of Pharmacion from his skill and knowledge of pharmacy, on which subject he wrote a work in ten books, five on ex­ternal remedies, and five on internal. (Gal. ibid. vol. xiii. p. 442.) Galen quotes this work very frequently, and generally with approbation.

3. M. artorius asclepiades. [artorius.]

4. asclepiades philophysicus (•luAo^ixn/co's), a physician, who must have lived some time in or before the second century after Christ, as he is quoted by Galen, who has preserved some of his medical formulae. (De Compos. Medicam. sec. Lo-cos, vii. 5, viii. 5, vol. xiii. pp. 102, 179.)

5. L. scribonius asclepiades, whose name occurs in a Latin inscription of unknown date, is supposed by Rhodius (ad Scrib. Larg. p. 4) to be Scribonius Largus Designatianus [largus], but this is very doubtful.

6. asclepiades titiensis, a physician, who must have lived in or before the second century after Christ, as he is quoted by Caelius Aurelian us. (De Morb. Acut. iii. 5, p. 201.)

7. asclepiades junior (6 Neon-epos), a phy­sician quoted by Galen (De Compos. Medicam. sec. Locos) i. 1. vol. xii. p. 410), who is the same per­son as Asclepiades Pharmacion.

8. areius asclepiades ('Apeios) is some­times inserted in the list of physicians of the name of Asclepiades, but this appears to be a mistake, as in the passage of Galen where the names occur (De Compos. Medicam. sec. Locos., viii. 5. vol. xiii. p. 182) instead of 'Apetou 'Acric\r}Triddov we should probably read 'Apetou >Ao-K/\7j7ria5etoi'. [AiiEius.]

9. M. gall us asclepiades seems to be a similar mistake, as in Galen, De Compos. Medicam. sec. Zocos, viii. 5, vol. xiii. p. 179, instead of Ta\\ov Mdpicov rov ">A<TK\'ir]Trido'ov we should pro­bably read FaAAou Map/cou rov 'AcrKATjTrmSeiou. [gallus.]

There are several other physicians of the name of Asclepiades mentioned in inscriptions, of whom nothing worth recording is known. A list of them is given in the works mentioned above. [W.A-G.]

ASCLEPIODORUS ('AovcAWSwpos). 1. A Macedonian, son of Timander, was one of the ge­nerals of Alexander the Great, and after the con­quest of Syria was appointed by Alexander satrap

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