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ASANDER.

as preserving many passages from some of Cicero^s lost writings, and from Sallust's History. He first gives a phrase generally, then an example, thus : " Firmatus illius rei, Sallust. Hist. iii. Ad Cyzi-uum perreocit firmatus animi. — Prudens illarum rerum, Sail. Hist. i. Prudens omnium quae senatus censuerat." The following words he arranges under the letter Kt—Kave9 kareo, kaptus, khao (abl. of chaos} kassus, klaud-us, kalleo, kalco, kausa-titS) Mam.

In some MSS. the work is called " M. Fron- tonis Exempla Elocutionum," &c.; in others, " Arusiani (or Volusiani) Messi Quadriga." On the authority of the former MSS. it has often passed under the name of Fronto, and under his name it was published by Angelo Mai, from a MS. much mutilated, especially in the latter part. But after what Fronto says on Cicero and other authors, it seems highly improbable that he would have employed himself in composing such a work from these authors. He would have chosen some of his favourite writers, Ennius, &c. It is possible that the work may be an extract by Arusianus from a larger work by Fronto, which larger work would have been composed from a greater number of authors, including those which Fronto most ad­ mired. The best edition is that by Lindemann, in his Corpus Grammaticorum Latin. Vet. vol. i. p. 199, from a MS. in the Wolfenbiittel collection, in excellent condition, and which, with the excep­ tion of a few passages, gives the work complete. It contains m6re than half as much again as Mai's edition. This new part contains many of the most valuable passages, those from Cicero's lost writings and from Sallust's History. The transcriber has prefixed the following remark : — " In aliquibus Codicibus pro Arusiani Messi male irrepsit Cornelii Frontonis." Lindemann gives in the notes the exact references to the passages which in the MS. are referred to only by the book. [fronto.] (Niebuhr, in his edit, of Fronto, Berlin, 1816, p. xxxi., &c. ; Lindemann, Praefut. in Corp. Gramm. Lat. Vet. i. p. 201, &c.) [A. A.]

ARYANDES ('ApuavS-^s), a Persian, who was appointed by Cambyses governor of Egypt. During his administration Pheretime, the mother of Arce-silaus of Gyrene, is said to have come to Aryandes as a suppliant, and to have solicited his assistance in avenging the death of her son, who had been murdered at Barca, as she pretended, because he had been a friend of the Persians. Aryandes ac­cordingly placed an army and a fleet at her com­mand. Herodotus thinks that this whole affair was a mere pretext under which the Persian satrap concealed his desire of conquering Lib}^a. After the conquest of Barca, some of the Persians want­ed to take possession of Cyrene also, but before they came to any determination, Aryandes sent a messenger to call the troops back to Egypt. Da­reius Hystaspis wished to perpetuate his own memory in a manner in which no king had yet done, arid for this purpose he struck gold coins of the purest metal. Aryandes imitated the king by coining money of the purest silver; but Dareius, indignant at such presumption, had him put to death. (Herod, iv. 165—167, 200—203.) [L. S.J

ARYBAS or ARYMBAS. [arribas.]

ARYENIS. [astyages.]

ASANDER ("A<rcwfyos). 1. A son of Philo-tas and brother of Parmenion. Alexander the Great appointed him in b. c. 334, governor of Ly-

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ASANDER.

dia and the other parts of the satrapy of Spithri-dates, and also placed under his command an army strong enough to maintain the Macedonian autho­rity. (Arrian, Anal), i. 18.) In the beginning of the year b. c. 328, Asander and Nearchus led a number of Greek mercenaries to Alexander, who was then staying at Zariaspa. (iv. 7.) In the division of the empire after the death of Alexander, in b. c. 323, Asander obtained Caria for his satrapy, in which he was afterwards confirmed by Antipa-ter. (Phot. BM. p. 64, a, 69, b, 72, a, ed. Bekk.; Diod. xviii. 3, 39, who in these and other passages uses the name of Cassander instead of Asander, and thus produces a confusion in his account; Jus-tin, xiii. 4; Curtius, x. 10.) At the command of Antipater he fought against Attains and Alcetas, both partizans of Perdiccas (Phot. Bill. p. 72, b.), but was conquered by them. In b. c. 317, while Antigonus was engaged in Persia and Media, Asander increased his power in Asia Minor, and was undoubtedly a member of the confederacy which was formed by Ptolemy Lagi and Cassander of Macedonia against Antigonus, although he is not mentioned by Diodorus (xix. 57) on account of the above mentioned confusion with Cassander. In b. c. 315, when Antigonus began his operations against the confederates, he sent one Ptolemy, a nephew of his, with, an army to relieve Amisus, and to expel from Cappadocia the army with which Asander had invaded that country; but as Asan­der was supported by Ptolemy Lagi and Cassander (Diod. xix. 62, 68), he maintained himself until b. c. 313, when Antigonus himself marched against him, and compelled him to conclude a treaty by which he was bound to surrender his whole army, to restore the Greek towns on the coast to free­dom, to regard his satrapy of Caria as the gift of Antigonus, and to give his brother Agathon as hostage. But after a few days Asander broke this humiliating treaty : he contrived to get his brother out of the hands of Antigonus, and sent ambassa­dors to Ptolemy and Seleucus for assistance. An­tigonus indignant at these acts, immediately sent out an army to restore the Greek towns to freedom by force of arms. Caria too appears to have been conquered, and Asander from this time disappears from history. (Diod. xix. 75.)

2. A man of high rank in the kingdom of the Bosporus. Pie first occurs in history as a general of Pharnaces II. of the Bosporus, whose sister Dynamis was the wife of Asander. In b. c. 47, he revolted against his brother-in-law who had appointed him regent of his kingdom during his war against Cn. Domitius Calvinus. Asander hoped by thus deserting his brother-in-law to win the favour of the Romans, and with their assist­ance to obtain the kingdom for himself. When, therefore, Pharnaces was defeated bv the Romans

" v

and took refuge in his own dominions, Asander had him put to death. Asander now usurped the throne, but was unable to maintain himself upon it, for Julius Caesar commanded Mithridates of Pergamus, on whom he conferred the title of king of the Bosporus, to make war upon Asander. (Dion Cass. xlii. 46—48, liv. 24 ; Appian, Mithrid. 120 ; Caesar, de Bella Alex. 78.) The results of this undertaking are not mentioned, but if we may believe the authority of Lucian (Macrob. 17) Asan­der was deprived of his kingdom and afterwards restored by Augustus. He died of voluntary star­vation at the advanced age of ninety-three, from

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