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was afterwards highly honoured by the Persian king. (Herod, vii. 99,'viii. 68, 87, &c., 93, 101, &c.; Polyaen. viii. 53; Paus. iii. 11. § 3.) According to a tradition preserved in Photius (Bill. p. 153, a., ed. Bekker), she put an end to her life in a romantic manner. She was in love, it is said, with Dardamis, a youth of Abydos, and as her passion was not returned, she avenged herself by putting his eyes out while he was asleep. This excited the anger of the gods, and an oracle commanded her to go to Leucas,' where she threw herself from the rock into the sea. She was succeeded by her son Pisindelis. Respecting the import of the phrase in regard to lovers, "to leap from the Leucadian rock," see sappho.
2. The sister, wife, and successor of the Carian prince Mausolus. She was the daughter of Heca- tonmus, and after the death of her husband, she reigned for two years, from b. c. 352 to b. c. 350. Her administration was conducted on the same principles as that of her husband, whence she sup ported the oligarchical party in the island of Rhodes. (Diod. xvi. 36,45; Dem. de Rhod. Libert. pp, 193, 197, 198.) She is renowned in history for her extraordinary grief at the death of her husband Mausolus. She is said to have mixed his ashes in her daily drink, and to have gradually died away in grief during the two years that she survived him. She induced the most eminent Greek rheto ricians to proclaim his praise in their oratory; and to perpetuate his memory she built at Halicarnassus the celebrated monument, Mausoleum, which was regarded as one of the seven wonders of the world, and whose name subsequently became the generic term for any splendid sepulchral monument. (Cic. Tusc. iii. 31 ; Strabo, xiv. p. 656; Gellius, x. 18; Plin. H. N. xxv. 36, xxxyi. 4. § 9 ; Val. Max. iv. 6. ext. 1 ; Suid. Harpocr. s, vv. 'Apre^iaia and MavcrwAos.) Another celebrated monument was erected by her in the island of Rhodes, to com memorate her success in making herself mistress of the island. The Rhodians, after recovering their liberty, made it inaccessible, whence it was called in later times the"A§a7w. (Vitruv. ii. 8.) [L. S.] ARTEMI'SIUS, a physician who is quoted by Marcellus Empiricus (De Medicam. c. 36. p. 410), and who must therefore have lived some time in or before the fourth century after Christ. It seems most probable that he is the same person who is called by mistake in another passage Artemius. (Ibid. c. 13. p. 298.) [W. A. G.] ARTE'MIUS ANASTA'SIUS. [anasta-
ARTEMON ('Apr&w). 1. Of cassandreia, a learned grammarian, who seems to have lived after b. c. 316. He is mentioned by Athenaeus (xii. p. 515) as the author of—1. Hepl owirycoyrjs (according to others dvaywyjjs) /SigA/W, which would either be on collecting books, or on assigning books to their proper authors. 2. Tlepl /3i§A/W %p?7fre£os, or Hepl ^Tjorews t£>v Trepl ras ffwovffias d^o^vtov. (Athen. xv. p. 694.) He is perhaps the same as the author of a work Trepl AiovvcriaKov owr-fyuaros, quoted by Athenaeus (xiv. pp. 636, 637), without any distinguishing epithet. There is also a work on painters (rrepl faypdtywv) which is ascribed to one Artemon. (Harpocrat. s. v. noAuyi/coTos.) Fabricius is inclined to believe, that our Artemon of Cassandreia is the one of whom Demetrius (de Elocut. 231) speaks as the person who collected letters of Aristotle.
2. Of clazomenae, is mentioned by Aelian (Hist. An. xii. 38) as the author of ftpoi KAcc^o/xei/tot, in which he mentioned that, at one time, the territory of Clazomenae was ravaged by a winged sow. Suidas (s. v. 'Apurlvos) ascribes to him a work on Homer (Trepl 'O^pou), of which, however, not a trace is now extant.
3. A heretic, who seems to have lived about the beginning of the third century of our era. It is also probable that he resided in or near Rome, since we read in Photius (Bill. p. 12, a., ed. Bekker), that the celebrated presbyter Gains (about A. d. 210) wrote against Artemon and his heresies. From the synodal letter of the bishops assembled at Antioch in a. d. 269, who deposed the heretic Paul of Samosata (Euseb. H. E. vii. 30), it seems clear that Artemon was regarded in the East as the precursor of the heresies of Paul, and perhaps also that Artemon was then still alive ; at any rate, however, that his sect was still in existence. Artemon and his friend Theodotus denied the divinity of Christ, and asserted, that he was merely a prophet raised by his virtues above all others, and that God had made use of him for the good of mankind. (Euseb. H. E. v. 28 ; Theodoret. Haeret. fabul. Epit. ii 4.) These opinions were probably supported by Artemon and his followers, the Arte-monites? by philosophical arguments; for Eusebius states, that they occupied themselves very much with philosophy and mathematics, and that they made use of them in their interpretation of Scripture. They are charged with having introduced forged readings into the text of the Bible, and to have omitted certain passages from the copies they used. These accusations, however, rest on rather weak grounds. (C. H. Stemmler Diatribe de Secia Artemonitarum, Leipzig, 1730 ; Schafihausen, Ilis-toria Artemonis et Artemonitarum^ Leipzig, 1737> 4to.)
4. A lacedaemonian, who built the military engines for Pericles in his war against Samos in b.c. 441. (Plut. PericL 27; Diod. xii. 28; Schol. ad Aristoph. Acliarn. 802.) There was a celebrated statue of this Artemon made by Polycletus. (Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 19. § 2.) Servius (ad Aen. ix. 505) confounds him with Artemon of Clazomenae.
5. Of magnesia, is known only as the author of a work on the virtues of women (/rep) rwv Kar dperrjv yvvai£l 7re7rpayfj.aTevfj.evwi> Suyy"^aro^), of which Sopater made an abstract (Phot. Bibl. p. 103, a.) ; but both the original and the abstract are lost.
6. Called MeXonoios, from his being a melic poet, appears to have been a contemporary of the comic poet Aristophanes. (Acliarn. 830, with the Schol.; Suid. s. v. o£"wi>.) It is usually believed, that he is the author of the two epigrams still extant in the Anthologia Graeca. (xii. 55. 124.)
7. Of miletus, wrote a work on the interpretation of dreams (ovsipoKpiTiita), in twenty-two books, which is now lost. (Artemid. Oneir. ii. 49 ; Eustath. ad Horn. II. xvi. p. 1119 ; Tertull. de Anim. 46 ; Fulgent, i. 13.)
8. Of pergamus, a Greek rhetorician, who wrote a history of Sicily, which is now lost, but is often mentioned by the grammarians. (Schol. ad Pind.Pyili. i. 1, 32, iii. 48 ; Ol. ii. 16, v. 1; Is&. ii. Argum.; Schol. ad Lycophr. 177.)
9. A rhetorician, who seems to have lived during the early period of the Roman empire, and