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called \ii*vfjTis or \iuvaia. (Pans. ii. 7. § 6, iii. I 23. § 6, iv. 4. § 2, 31. § 3, viii. 53. § 5.) In the precincts of her sanctuaries there were often sacred wells, as at Corinth. (Pans. ii. 3. § 5, iii. 20. § 7.) As a nymph, Artemis also appears in connexion with river gods, as with Alpheius [alpheius], and thus it is intelligible why fish were sacred to her. (Diod. v. 3.)
3. The Taurian Artemis. The legends of this goddess are mystical, and her worship was orgiastic and connected, at least in early times, with human sacrifices. According to the Greek legend there was in Tauris a goddess, whom the Greeks for some reason identified with their own Artemis, and to whom all strangers that were thrown on the coast of Tauris, were sacrificed. (Eurip. Ipk. Tarn: 36.) Iphigeneia and Orestes brought her image from thence, and landed at Brauron in Attica, whence the goddess derived the name of Brau-ronia. (Paus. i. 23. § 9, 33. § 1, iii. 16, in fin.) The Brauronian Artemis was worshipped at Athens and Sparta, and in the latter place the boys were scourged at her altar in such a manner that it became sprinkled with their blood. This cruel ceremony was believed to have been introduced by Lycurgus, instead of the human sacrifices which had until then been offered to her. (Diet, of Ant. s. v. ~Bpavp&via and AictytcurTrycocrts.) Her name at Sparta was Orthia, with reference to the phallus, or because her statue stood erect. According to another tradition, Orestes and Iphigeneia concealed the image of the Taurian goddess in a bundle of brushwood, and carried it to Aricia in La-tium. [AmciNA.] Iphigeneia, who was at first to have been sacrificed to Artemis, and then became her priestess, was afterwards identified with the goddess (Herod, iv. 103; Paus. i. 43. § 1), who was worshipped in some parts of Greece, as at Hermione, under the name of Iphigeneia. (Paus. ii. 35. § 1.) Some traditions stated, that Artemis made Iphigeneia immortal, in the character of Hecate, the goddess of the moon. [hecate.] A kindred divinity, if not the same as the Taurian Artemis, is Artemis raupoTnfAos, whose worship was connected with bloody sacrifices, and who produced madness in the minds of men, at least the chorus in the Ajax of Sophocles, describes the madness of Ajax as the work of this divinity. In the legends about the Taurian Artemis, it seems that separate local traditions of Greece are mixed up with the legends of some Asiatic divinity, whose symbol in the heaven was the moon, and on the earth the cow.
4. The Epliesian Artemis was a divinity totally distinct from the Greek goddess of the same name. She seems to have been the personification of the fructifying and all-nourishing powers of nature. It is an opinion almost universally adopted, that she was an ancient Asiatic divinity whose worship the Greeks found established in Ionia, when they settled there, and that, for some resemblance they discovered, they applied to her the name of Arte-inis. As soon as this identity of the Asiatic goddess with the Greek Artemis was recognised, other features, also originally peculiar to the Greek Artemis, were transferred to her; and thus she is called a daughter of Leto, who gave birth to her in the neighbourhood of Ephesus. Her original character is sufficiently clear from the fact, that her priests were eunuchs, and that her image in the magnificent temple of Ephesus represented her
with many breasts (TroXvpao-Tos). The whole figure of the goddess resembled a mummy : her head was surmounted with a mural crown (corona muralis\ and the lower part of her body, which ended in a point, like a pyramid upside down, was covered with figures of mystical animals. (Strab. xiv. p. 641 ; Pans. iv. 31. § 6, vii. 5. § 2., The symbol of this divinity was a bee, and her high-priest bore the name of king (eatr/iv). Her worship was said to have been established at Ephesus by the Amazons. (Pans. ii. 7. § 4, viii. 12. § 1; He-sych. and Suid. s. v. etrcrijv.)
Respecting some other divinities, or attributes of divinities, which were likewise regarded as identical with Artemis in Greece, see buitomartis, dictynna, and eileithyia. The Romans identified their goddess Diana with the Greek. Artemis, and at a comparatively early time they transferred to their own goddess all the peculiar features of the Greek Artemis. [DiANA.] The worship of Artemis was universal in all Greece, in Delos, Crete, Sicily, and southern Italy, but more especially in Arcadia and the whole of the Peloponnesus. The sacrifices offered to the Brauronian Artemis consisted of stags and goats; in Thrace dogs were offered to Artemis. Among the animals sacred to the Greek Artemis we may mention the stag, boar, dog, and others; the fir-tree was likewise sacred to her.
It is impossible to trace the various relations in which Artemis appears to us to one common source, or to one fundamental idea : the very manner in which such a complicated mythus was formed renders thft attempt futile, or, to say the least, forced. In the case of Artemis, it is evident, that new elements and features were added in various places to the ancient local mythus ; the worship of one divinity is identified with that of another, and the legends of the two are mixed up into one, or those of the one are transferred to the other, whose legends then sink into oblivion.
The representations of the Greek Artemis in works of art are different accordingly as she is re presented either as a huntress, or as the goddess of the moon ; yet in either case she appears as a youth ful and vigorous divinity, as becomes the sister of Apollo. As the huntress, she is tall, nimble, and has small hips ; her forehead is high, her eyes glancing freely about, and her hair tied up behind in such a manner, that some locks float down her neck; her breast is covered, and the legs up to the knees are naked, the rest being covered by the chlamys. Her attributes are the bow, quiver, and arrows, or a spear, stags, and dogs. As the goddess of the moon, she wears a long robe which reaches down to her feet, a veil covers her head, and above her forehead rises the crescent of the moon. In her hand she often appears holding a torch. (Mitscher- lich, de Diana Sospita, Gb'ttingen, 1821 ; Miiller, Dorians, book ii. c. 9 ; Museo Pio-Clem. i. 30 ; Hirt. Mytliol. Bilderb. i. p. 37.) [L. S.]
ARTEMISIA ('Apre^o-ia). 1. A queen of Halicarnassus, Cos, Nisyros, and Calydna, who ruled over these places as a vassal of the Persian empire in the reign of Xerxes I. She was a daughter of Lygdamis, and on the death of her husband, she succeeded him as queen. When Xerxes invaded Greece, she voluntarily joined his fleet with five beautiful ships, and in the battle of Salamis (b. c. 480) she distinguished herself by her prudence, courage, and perseverance, for which she