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nor, they opened their gates to the Athenians. The two fugitives were pursued, and Artayctes and his son were overtaken and brought before Xanthippus. Artayctes offered ] 00 talents to the inhabitants of Elaeus as an atonement for the out rage he had committed,on the tomb of Protesilaus, and 200 more as a ransom for himself and his son. But the inhabitants would not accept any other atonement than his life, and Xanthippus was obliged to give him up to them. Artayctes was then nailed to a cross, and his son stoned to death before his eyes. (Herod, vii. 33, 78, ix. 116, 118—120 ; Pans" i. 4. § 5.) [L. S.]
ARTAYNTE ('Aprativrr)), a daughter of Masistes, the brother of Xerxes I. Xerxes gave her in marriage to his son Dareius, but he himself was in love with her, and on one occasion was obliged, by his own imprudent promise, to give her a robe which he had received as a present from his wife Amastris. Thus the king's paramour be came known, and Amastris, fancying that the love affair was the work of the wife of Masistes, took the most cruel vengeance upon her. (Herod, ix. 108—110.) Maximus Tyrius (xxvi. 7) confounds the two women, Amastris and Artaynte. (Comp. Tzetz. GUI. ii. 6.) [L. S.]
ARTAYNTES ('ApraiW^s), one of the gene rals in the army of Xerxes. When Xerxes had returned to Asia after the battle of Salamis, Artayntes, Ithamitres, and some other generals, sailed to Samos in order to watch the lonians, and in the hope that the land-force under Marclonius in northern Greece might still be successful. But after the battles of Plataeae and Mycale, in b. c. 479, Artayntes and Ithamitres took to flight. While Artayntes was passing through Asia, he was met by Masistes, the brother of Xerxes, who censured him severely for his cowardly flight. Artayntes, enraged, drew his sword and would have killed Masistes, had he not been saved by Xeinagoras, a Greek, who seized Artayntes at the moment and threw him on the ground, for which act he was liberally rewarded. (Herod, viii. 130, ix. 102, 107.) [L. S.]
ARTEMBARES ('Aprefj&dpris), a Median of noble rank, whose son, according to the story about the youth of the great Cyrus, was one of the playmates of Cyrus. Cyrus chastised him for his want of obedience in their play ; and Artembares, indignant at the conduct of Cyrus, who was believed to be a mere shepherd's boy, complained to king Astyages, and thus became the means of discovering that Cyrus was the son of Mandane and the grandson of Astyages. (Herod, i. 114—116.) Two Persians of this name occur in Herodotus (ix. 122), and Aeschylus. (P&rs. 29, 2P4.) [L.S.]
ARTEMIDORUS ("ApTt^apos). L Sur-named aristophanius, and also Pseudo-Aristo-phanius, from his being a disciple of the celebrated grammarian Aristophanes, of Byzantium at Alexandria. Artemidorus himself was, therefore, a contemporary of Aristarchus, and likewise a grammarian. He is mentioned by Athenaeus (iv. p. 182) as the author of a work ire pi AupiSos, the nature of which is not clear, and of Ae£eis or yKtoff-ffai otyaprvTucai^ that is, a dictionary of technical terms and expressions used in the art of cookery. (Athen. i. p. 5, ix. p. 387, xiv. pp. 662, 663; Suidas, s. vv., JApre/xi§wpos and Ttfta^iSas ; Ero-f.iun in Aacrioi'.) Some MSS. of Theocritus con-
tain, under the name of Artemidorus, an epigram of two lines on the collection of bucolic poems, which perhaps belongs to our grammarian. (Theo-crit. p. 806, ed. Kiessling; Antliol. Grace, ix. n. 205.)
2. Of ascalon, wrote a history of Bithynia, and is mentioned by Stephanus of Byzantium (s. v. 'AffKa\wv) as one of the distinguished persons of that place.
3. Of cistidus, a son of Theopompus, and a friend of Julius Caesar (Strab. xiv. p. 656), was a rhetorician, and taught the Greek language at Rome. At the time when the plot was formed against the life of Caesar, b. c. 43, Artemidorus, who had heard of it, cautioned Caesar by a letter, and urged him to take care of himself; but the warning was not heeded. (Pint. Caes. 65; Zo-naras, vol. i. p. 491, ed. Paris.)
4. daldianus, was a native of Ephesus, but is usually called Daldianus (AaASta^os), to distinguish him from the geographer Artemidorus (Lu-cian, Philopatr. 22), since his mother was born at Daklia or Daldis, a small town in Lydia. Artemidorus himself also preferred the surname of Daldianus (Oneirocr. iii. 66), which seems to have been a matter of pride with him, as the Daldian Apollo Mystes gave him the especial commission to write a work on dreams. (Oneirocr. ii. 70.) He lived at Rome in the reign of Antoninus Pius and M. Aurelius7 as we may infer from several passages of his work (i. 28, 66, iv. 1), though some writers have placed him in the reign of Con-stantine, and others identify him with the friend of Pliny the younger, and son-in-law of Musonius. (Plin. Epist. iii. 11.) But the passages of Artemi-dorus's own work cited above, place the question beyond all doubt. Artemidorus is the author of a work on the interpretation of dreams ('Gi/eipo/cpi-rj/rn), in five books, which is still extant. He collected the materials for this work by very extensive reading (he asserts that he had read all the books on the subject), on his travels through Asia, Greece, Italy, and the Grecian islands. (Oneir. Prooem. lib. i.) He himself intimates that he had written several works, and from Suidas and Eudocia we may infer, that one was called oloovoatcoTTiKd., and the other xeipoovcoTn/ca. Along with his occupations on these subjects, he also practised as a physician. From his work on dreams, it is clear that he was acquainted with, the principal productions of more ancient writers on the subject, and his object is to prove, that in dreams the future is revealed to man, and to clear the science of interpreting them from the abuses with which the fashion of the time had surrounded it. He does not attempt to establish his opinion by philosophical reasoning, but by appealing to facts partly recorded in history, partly derived from oral tradition of the people, and partly from his own experience. On the last point he places great reliance, especially as he believed that he was called to his task by Apollo, (ii. 70.) This makes him conceited, and raises him above all fear of censure. The first two books are dedicated to Cassms Maximus. The third and fourth, are inscribed to his son. The fifth book is, properly speaking, an independent work, the title of which is Trep: ovelptav ca/agatrecs)*/, and which contains a collection of interesting dreams, which were believed to have been realized. The style of
the work is simple, correct, and elegant j and this,