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On this page: Artacama – Artachaees – Artanes – Artapanus – Artaphernes – Artas

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ARTAPHERNES.

baxus for his fidelity with the satrapy of Bactria. His daughter, Barsine, became by Alexander the mother of Heracles ; a second daughter, Artocama, was given in marriage to Ptolemy; and a third, Artonis, to Eumenes. In b. c. 328, Artabazus, then a man of very advanced age, resigned his satrapy, which was given to Cleitus. (Arrian, Anab. iii. 23, 29, vii. 4 ; Curtius, iii. 13, v. 9, 12, vi. 5, vii. 3, 5, viii. 1; Strab. xii. p. 578 ; comp. Droysen, Gesch. Aleoc. des Gross, p. 497.) [L. S.]

ARTACAMA. [artabazus, No. 4.]

ARTACHAEES ('Apraxa/V), a distinguished Persian, and the tallest man in the nation, super­intended the construction of the canal across the isthmus of Athos. He died while Xerxes was with his army at Athos; and the king, who was deeply grieved at his loss, gave him a splendid funeral, and the whole army raised a mound. In the time of Plerodotus, the Acanthians, in pursuance of an oracle, sacrificed to Artachaees as a hero. (Herod, vii. 22, 117.) This mound appears to be the one described by Lieutenant Wolfe, who re­marks: "About H mile to the westward of the north end of the canal (of Xerxes) is the modern village of Erso (on the site of Acanthus), which gives its name to the bay, situated on an eminence overhanging the beach : this is crowned by a re­markable mound, forming a small natural citadel.1' {Classical Museum., No. I. p. 83, Lond. 1843.)

ARTANES( 'Aprons), a son of Hystaspes and brother of Dareius Hystaspis, had given his only daughter and all his property to Dareius, and was afterwards one of the distinguished Persians who fought and fell in the battle of Thermopylae. (Herod, vii. 224.) [L. S.]

ARTAPANUS or ARTAPANES. [arta-

BANUS.]

ARTAPHERNES ('ApTa</>€>Tjs). 1. A son of Hystaspes and brother of Dareius Hystaspis, who was appointed satrap of Sardis. In the year B. c. 505, when the Athenians sought the protec­tion of Persia against Sparta, they sent an embassy to Artaphernes. The satrap answered, that the desired alliance with Persia could be granted only on condition of their recognizing the supremacy of king1 Dareius. When Hippias, the son of Peisis-tratus, had taken refuge in Asia, he endeavoured to induce Artaphernes to support his cause, and the Athenians, on being informed of his machina­tions, again sent an embassy to Artaphernes, re­questing him not to interfere between them and Hippias. The reply of Artaphernes, that they should suffer no harm if they would recall their tyrant, shewed the Athenians that they had to hope nothing from Persia. In B. c. 501, Arta­phernes was induced by the brilliant hopes which Aristagoras of Miletus held out to him, to place, with the king's consent, 200 ships and a Persian force at the command of Aristagoras, for the pur­pose of restoring the Naxian exiles to their coun­try. But the undertaking failed, and Aristagoras, unable to realise his promises, was driven by fear to cause the insurrection of the lonians against Persia. When in B. c. 499 Aristagoras and his Athenian allies marched against Sardis, Artapher­nes,'not expecting such an attack, withdrew to the citadel, and the town of Sardis fell into the hand of the Greeks and was burnt. But the Greeks re­turned, fearing lest they should be overwhelmed by a Persian army, which might come to the reliei of Artaphernes. In the second year of the Ionian

ARTAS.

war, b. c. 497, Artaphernes and Otanes began to attack vigorously the towns of Ionia and Aeolis. Cumae and Clazomenae fell into the hands of the Persians. Artaphernes was sharp enough to see through the treacherous designs of Histiaeus, and xpressed his suspicions to him at Sardis. The fear of being discovered led Histiaeus to take to flight. Some letters, which he afterwards addres­sed to some Persians at Sardis, who were concerned in his designs, were intercepted, and Artaphernes had all the guilty Persians put to death. From this time Artaphernes disappears from history, and he seems to have died soon afterwards. (Herod, v. 25, 30—32, 100, 123, vi. 1, &c.; comp. hip­pias, aristagoras, histiaeus.)

2. A son of the former. After the unsuccessful enterprise of Mardonius against Greece in b. c. 492, king Dareius placed Datis and his nephew Artaphernes at the head of the forces which were to chastise Athens and Eretria. Artaphernes, though superior in rank, seems to have been in­ferior in military skill to Datis, who was in reality the commander of the Persian army. The troops assembled in Cilicia, and here they were taken on board 600 ships. This fleet first sailed to Samos, and thence to the Cyclades. Naxos was taken and laid in ashes, and all the islands submitted to the Persians. In Euboea, Carystus and Eretria also fell into their hands. After this the Persian army landed at Marathon. Here the Persians were de­feated in the memorable battle of Marathon, B. c. 490, whereupon Datis and Artaphernes sailed back to Asia. When Xerxes invaded Greece, B. c. 480, Artaphernes commanded the Lydians and Mysians. (Herod, vi. 94, 116, vii. 10. § 2, 74; Aeschyl. Pers. 21.)

3. A Persian, who was sent by king Artaxerxes I., in B. c. 425, with a letter to Sparta. While he passed through Eion on the Strymon, he was arrested by Aristeides, the son of Archippus, and carried to Athens, where the letter of his king was opened and translated. It contained a complaint of the king, that owing to the many and discrepant messages they had sent to him, he did riot -know what they wanted ; and he therefore requested them to send a fresh embassy back with Artaphernes, and to explain clearly what they wished. The Athenians thought this a favourable opportunity for forming connexions themselves with Persia, and accordingly sent Artaphernes in a galley, ac­ companied by Athenian ambassadors, to Ephesus. On their arrival there they received intelligence of the death of king Artaxerxes, and the Athenians returned home. (Time, iv, 50.) [L. S.]

ARTAS or ARTUS ("Apras, Thuc.; "Ap-ros, Demetr. and Suidas), a prince of the Messapians in the time of the Pelopomiesian war. Thucydides (vii. 33) relates that Demosthenes in his passage to Sicily (b. c. 413) obtained from him a force of 150 dartmen, and renewed with him an old-existing friendly connexion. This connexion with Athens is explained by the long enmity, which, shortly before, was at its height, between the Messapians and the Lacedaemonian Tarentum. (Comp. Niebuhr, i. p. 148.) The visit of Demosthenes is, probably, what the comic poet Demetrius alluded to in the lines quoted from his " Sicily" by Athenaeus (iii. p. 108), who tells us further, that Polemon wrote a book about him. Possibly, however, as Polemon and Demetrius both flourished about 300 i b. c., this may be a second Artas. The name ia

2 b

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