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ARTABANUS. 367

her murder; they broke into the house of Phi­lammon, and killed him together with his son and wife. (Polyb. v, 83, 84, 87, xv. 25, 32, 33.)

ARSINOE.

iron might appear to float in the air; but the death of the architect and the king prevented its completion. (Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 42.) Coins were struck in her honour, one of which is figured "below, representing her crowned with a diadem and her head partially veiled: the reverse contains

a double cornucopia, which illustrates the state­ment of Athenaeus (xi. p. 497, b. c.), that Ptolemy Philadelphia was the first who had made the drinking-horn, calld pvrov, as an ornament for the statues of Arsinoe, which bore in the left hand such a horn, filled with all the fruits of the earth. It should, however, be remarked that the word occurs as early as the time of Demosthenes. (Diet, of Ant. s. v. pvrov.}

3. The daughter of Lysimachus and Nicaea, was married to Ptolemy II. Philadelphus soon after his accession, b. c. 285. When Arsinoe, the sister of Ptolemy Philadelphus [see No. 2], fled to Egypt in B, c. 279, and Ptolemy became capti­vated by her, Arsinoe, the daughter of Lysima­chus, in conjunction with Amyntas and Chrysip-pus, a physician of Rhodes, plotted against her; but her plots were discovered, and she was banish­ed to Coptos, or some city of the Thebais. She had by Ptolemy three children, Ptolemy Evergetes, afterwards king, Lysimachus, and Berenice. (Schol. ad Theocr. Id. xvii. 128; Paus. i. 7. § 3 ; Polyb. xv. 25.)

4. The wife of Magas, king of Gyrene. In order to put an end to his disputes with his brother Ptolemy II. Philadelphus, Magas had betrothed his only daughter, Berenice, to the son of Ptolemy, but died before the marriage took place. As Arsi­noe disapproved of this connexion, she invited De­metrius the Fair, the son of Demetrius Poliorcetes, to Gyrene, in order to become the king of the place and the husband of Berenice. But his beauty captivated Arsinoe; and her daughter indignant at the treatment she had received, excited a con­spiracy against him, and caused him to be killed in the arms of her mother. Berenice then married the son of Ptolemy. (Justin, xxvi. 3.) It is not stated of what family this Arsinoe was. Niebuhr (Kleine Scriften, p. 230) conjectures that she was the same as the daughter of Lysimachus [No. 3], who after her banishment to Coptos went to Cyrene, and married Magas.

5. Called Eurydice by Justin (xxx. 1), and Cleopatra by Livy (xxvii. 4), but Arsinoe by Po-lybius, was the daughter of Ptolemy III. Ever­getes, the wife of her brother Ptolemy IV. Philo-pator, and the mother of Ptolemy V. Epiphanes. She was present with her husband at the battle of Raphia (b. c. 217), in which Antiochus, the Great, was defeated; but her profligate husband was induced towards the end of his reign, by the intrigues of Sosibius, to order Philammon to put her to death. But after the death of Ptolemy Philopator, the female friends of Arsinoe revenged

6. Daughter of Ptolemy XI. Auletes, escaped from Caesar, when he was besieging Alexandria in b. c. 47, and was recognized as queen by the Alexandrians, since her brother Ptolemy XII. Dionysus was in Caesar's power. After the cap­ture of Alexandria she was carried to Rome by Caesar, and led in triumph by him in b. c. 46, on which occasion she excited the compassion of the Roman people. She was soon afterwards dismissed by Caesar, and returned to Alexandria; but her sister Cleopatra persuaded Antony to have her put to death in B. c. 41, though she had fled for re­fuge to the temple of Artemis Leucophryne in Miletus. (Dion Cass. xlii. 39, &c., xliii. .19; Caes. B. C. iii. 112,5. Aleoe. 4, 33; Appian, B. C. v. 9, comp. Dion Cass. xlviii. 24.)

ARSITES (*Apffirris), the satrap of the Helles-pontine Phrygia when Alexander the Great invaded Asia. After the defeat of the Persians at the Granicus, Arsites retreated to Phrygia, where he put an end to his own life, because he had advised the satraps to fight with Alexander, instead of retiring before him and laying waste the country., as Memnon had recommended. (Arrian, Andb. i. 13, 17; Paus. i. 29. § 7.)

ARTABANUS (>Aprd§avos), sometimes writ­ten Artapanus or Artapanes. 1. A son of Hys-taspes and brother of Dareius Hystaspis, is described by Herodotus (iv. 83) as dissuading his brother from the expedition against the Scythians. In the reign of Xerxes, the successor of Dareius, Arta-banus appears occasionally again in the character of a wise and frank counsellor, and Herodotus in­troduces him several times as speaking. (Herod. vii. 10, 46—53.)

2. An Hyrcanian, who was commander of the body-guard of king Xerxes. In b. c. 465, Arta-banus, in conjunction with a eunuch, whom some call Spamitres and others Mithridates, assassinated Xerxes, with the view of setting himself upon the throne of Persia. Xerxes had three sons, Dareius, Artaxerxes, and Hystaspes, who was absent from the court as satrap of Bactria. Now as it was necessary for Artabanus to get rid of these sons also, he persuaded Artaxerxes that his brother Dareius was the murderer of his father, and stimu­lated him to avenge the deed by assassinating Dareius. This was done at the earliest opportunity. Artabanus now communicated his plan of usurping the throne to his sons, and his intention to murder Artaxerxes also. When the moment for carrying this plan into effect had come, he insidiously struck Artaxerxes with his sword; but the blow only injured the prince slightly, and in the struggle which ensued Artaxerxes killed Artabanus, and thus secured the succession to himself. (Diod. xi. 69.) Justin (iii. 1), who knows only of the two

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